Skip to main content
Landing Pages / Profile
Photo of  Jennifer J. Vannest, PhD

Jennifer J. Vannest, PhD

Associate Professor

  • Bachelor's Degree: Ohio State University
  • Doctoral Degree: Ohio State University
  • Postdoctoral : University of Michigan (Psychology)
  • Postdoctoral: University of Rochester (Brain and Cognitive Sciences)
Contact Information
Research Interests

Cognitive Neuroscience of Language and Memory (using functional MRI); Cognitive Effects of Epilepsy and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Peer Reviewed Publications

Boyne, P., Scholl, V., Doren, S., Carl, D., Billinger, S.A., Reisman, D.S., Gerson, M., Kissela, B., Vannest, J. and Dunning, K., 2020. Locomotor training intensity after stroke: Effects of interval type and mode. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, , 1

Gutierrez-Colina, A. M., Vannest, J., Maloney, T., Wade, S. L., Combs, A., Horowitz-Kraus, T., & Modi, A. C. 2020. The neural basis of executive functioning deficits in adolescents with epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI connectivity study of working memory. Brain Imaging and Behavior, , 1

Kraus, D., Vannest, J., Arya, R., Hutton, J. S., Leach, J. L., Mangano, F. T., ... & Horowitz‐Kraus, T. 2020. Reading in children with drug‐resistant epilepsy was related to functional connectivity in cognitive control regions. Acta Paediatrica., ,

Moore, D.R., Hugdahl, K., Stewart H.J., Vannest, J., Perdew, A.J., Sloat, N.T., Cash, E.K., & Hunter L.L. 2020. Listening Difficulties in Children: Behavior and Brain Activation Produced by Dichotic Listening of CV Syllables. Frontiers in Psychology, 11 , 675

Swanson, S. J., Conant, L. L., Humphries, C. J., LeDoux, M., Raghavan, M., Mueller, W. M., ... & Busch, R. M. … Vannest, J. and Binder J.R. 2020. Changes in description naming for common and proper nouns after left anterior temporal lobectomy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 106 , 106912

Arya, R., Babajani-Feremi, A., Byars, A.W., Vannest, J., Greiner, H.M., Wheless, J.W., Mangano, F.T. and Holland, K.D., 2019. A model for visual naming based on spatiotemporal dynamics of ECoG high-gamma modulation Epilepsy & Behavior, 99 , 106455

Arya, R., Ervin, B., Dudley, J., Buroker, J., Rozhkov, L., Scholle, C., Horn, P.S., Vannest, J., Byars, A.W., Leach, J.L. and Mangano, F.T., 2019. Electrical stimulation mapping of language with stereo-EEG. Epilepsy & Behavior, 99 , 106395

Arya, R., Roth, C., Leach, J.L., Middeler, D., Wilson, J.A., Vannest, J., Rozhkov, L., Greiner, H.M., Buroker, J., Scholle, C. and Fujiwara, H., 2019. Neuropsychological outcomes after resection of cortical sites with visual naming associated electrocorticographic high-gamma modulation Epilepsy rsearch, 151 , 17

Espay, A.J., Ries, S., Maloney, T., Vannest, J., Neefus, E., Dwivedi, A.K., Allendorfer, J.B., Wulsin, L.R., LaFrance, W.C., Lang, A.E. and Szaflarski, J.P., 2019. . Clinical and neural responses to cognitive behavioral therapy for functional tremor. Neurology, 93 19, e1787

Nair, S., Nenert, R.E., Allendorfer, J.B., Goodman, A.M., Vannest, J., Mirman, D. and Szaflarski, J.P. 2019. Sex, age, and handedness modulate the neural correlates of active learning. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13 , 961

Redel, J.M., Dolan, L.M., DiFrancesco, M., Vannest, J. and Shah, A.S 2019. Youth-Onset Type 2 Diabetes and the Developing Brain Current diabetes reports, 19 1, 3

Yarian, M., Washington, K.N., Spencer, C.E., Vannest, J. and Crowe, K., 2019. Exploring Predictors of Expressive Grammar Across Different Assessment Tasks in Preschoolers With or Without DLD Communication Disorders Quarterly, , 1525740119868238

Arya R, Wilson JA, Fujiwara H, Vannest J, Byars AW, Rozhkov L, Leach JL, Greiner HM, Buroker J, Scholle C, Horn PS 2018. Electrocorticographic high‐gamma modulation with passive listening paradigm for pediatric extraoperative language mapping Epilepsia, Feb 20 ,

Boyne, P., Maloney, T., DiFrancesco, M., Fox, M.D., Awosika, O., Aggarwal, P., Woeste, J., Jaroch, L., Braswell, D. and Vannest, J.*, 2018. Resting‐state functional connectivity of subcortical locomotor centers explains variance in walking capacity Human brain mapping, ,

Dietz, A., Vannest, J., Maloney, T., Altaye, M., Holland, S. and Szaflarski, J.P., 2018. The feasibility of improving discourse in people with aphasia through AAC: clinical and functional MRI correlates. Aphasiology,, 32 6, 693

Espay AJ, Maloney T, Vannest J, Norris MM, Eliassen JC, Neefus E, Allendorfer JB, Lang AE, Szaflarski JP 2018. Impaired emotion processing in functional (psychogenic) tremor: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. NeuroImage: Clinical, Jan 1 17, 179

Fujiwara, H., Tenney, J., Kadis, D.S., Byars, A., Altaye, M., Spencer, C., Glauser, T. and Vannest, J.* 2018. Cortical morphology, epileptiform discharges, and neuropsychological performance in BECTS Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ,

Modi AC, Vannest J, Combs A, Turnier L, Wade SL 2018. Pattern of executive functioning in adolescents with epilepsy: A multimethod measurement approach Epilepsy & Behavior, Mar 1 80, 5

Nenert, R., Allendorfer, J.B., Martin, A.M., Banks, C., Vannest, J., Holland, S.K., Hart, K.W., Lindsell, C.J. and Szaflarski, J.P., 2018. Longitudinal fMRI study of language recovery after a left hemispheric ischemic stroke. Restorative neurology and neuroscience, 36 3, 359

Redel JM, DiFrancesco M, Vannest J, Altaye M, Beebe D, Khoury J, Dolan LM, Lee G, Brunner H, Holland S, Brady C 2018. Brain gray matter volume differences in obese youth with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jan 26 ,

Szaflarski, J.P., Griffis, J., Vannest, J., Allendorfer, J.B., Nenert, R., Amara, A.W., Sung, V., Walker, H.C., Martin, A.N., Mark, V.W. and Zhou, X. 2018. A feasibility study of combined intermittent theta burst stimulation and modified constraint-induced aphasia therapy in chronic post-stroke aphasia. Restorative neurology and neuroscience, , 1

Tenney, J.R., Kadis, D.S., Agler, W., Rozhkov, L., Altaye, M., Xiang, J., Vannest, J. and Glauser, T.A 2018. Ictal connectivity in childhood absence epilepsy: Associations with outcome. Epilepsia, 59 5, 971

Youssofzadeh, V., Vannest, J. and Kadis, D.S 2018. fMRI connectivity of expressive language in young children and adolescents. Human brain mapping, ,

Arya R, Wilson JA, Fujiwara H, Rozhkov L, Leach JL, Byars AW, Greiner HM, Vannest J, Buroker J, Milsap G, Ervin B. 2017. Presurgical language localization with visual naming associated ECoG high‐gamma modulation in pediatric drug‐resistant epilepsy. Epilepsia, 58 4, 663

Brady, Cassandra C; Vannest, Jennifer J; Dolan, Lawrence M; Kadis, Darren S; Lee, Gregory R; Holland, Scott K; Khoury, Jane C; Shah, Amy S 2017. Obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes perform worse than controls on cognitive and behavioral assessments. Pediatric diabetes, 18 4, 297-303

Espay AJ, Maloney T, Vannest J, Norris MM, Eliassen JC, Neefus E, Allendorfer JB, Chen R, Szaflarski JP 2017. Dysfunction in emotion processing underlies functional (psychogenic) dystonia. Movement Disorders, Nov 10 ,

Griffis JC, Nenert R, Allendorfer JB, Vannest J, Holland SK, Dietz A, Szaflarski JP 2017. The canonical semantic network supports residual language function in chronic post-stroke aphasia. Human brain mapping, 38 3, 1636

Griffith J, Dietz A, Ball A, Vannest J, Szaflarski JP 2017. An examination of changes in spoken productions within constraint-induced aphasia therapy. Aphasiology, 31 11, 1250

Horowitz-Kraus T, Farah R, DiFrancesco MW, Vannest J.* 2017. The Involvement of Speed-of-Processing in Story Listening in Preschool Children: A Functional and Structural Connectivity Study. Neuropediatrics, 48 1, 19

Nenert R, Allendorfer JB, Martin AM, Banks C, Ball A, Vannest J, Dietz AR, Szaflarski JP. 2017. Neuroimaging Correlates of Post-Stroke Aphasia Rehabilitation in a Pilot Randomized Trial of Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy. Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 23 3489, 3489

Nenert R, Allendorfer JB, Martin AM, Banks C, Vannest J, Holland SK, Szaflarski JP 2017. Age-related language lateralization assessed by fMRI: The effects of sex and handedness. Brain Research, Nov 1 1674, 20

Vannest J, Maloney TC, Tenney JR, Szaflarski JP, Morita D, Byars AW, Altaye M, Holland SK, Glauser TA. 2017. Changes in functional organization and functional connectivity during story listening in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes. Brain and Language, Feb 13 ,

Brady CC, Vannest J, Dolan L, Kadis DS, Lee GR, Holland SK, Khoury JC, Shah AS 2016. Obese Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes Perform Worse than Controls on Cognitive and Behavioral Assessments Pediatric Diabetes, ,

Dietz A, Vannest J, Maloney T, Altaye M, Szaflarski JP, Holland SK 2016. The Calculation of Language Lateralization Indices in Post-stroke Aphasia: A Comparison of a Standard and a Lesion-Adjusted Formula. Front Hum Neurosci, 10 , 493

Leach, James L; Awwad, Reem; Greiner, Hansel M; Vannest, Jennifer J; Miles, Lili; Mangano, Francesco T 2016. Mesial temporal lobe morphology in intractable pediatric epilepsy: so-called hippocampal malrotation, associated findings, and relevance to presurgical assessment. Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics, 17 6, 683-93

Tenney JR, Glauser T, Altaye M, Szaflarski JP, Spencer C, Morita D, Vannest J.* 2016. Longitudinal stability of interictal spikes in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes Epilepsia, 57 5, 805

Vannest J, Tenney JR, Altaye M, Byars AW, Spencer C, Maloney TC, Szaflarski JP, Morita D, Glauser TA 2016. Impact of frequency and lateralization of interictal discharges on neuropsychological and fine motor status in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Epilepsia, 57 8, e161

Arya R, Wilson JA, Vannest J, Byars AW, Greiner H, Buroker J,
 Fujiwara H, Mangano F. Holland K, Crone N, Rose D 2015. Electrocorticographic language mapping in children by high-gamma synchronization during spontaneous conversation: Comparison with conventional electrical cortical stimulation Epilepsy Research, 110 , 78

Horowitz-Kraus T, Eaton K, Farah R, Hajinazarian A, Vannest J, Holland SK 2015. Predicting better performance on a college preparedness test from narrative comprehension at the age of 6 years: An fMRI study Brain Res, Dec 10 1629, 54

Horowitz-Kraus, T., Grainger, M., DiFrancesco, M.W., Vannest, J., Holland, S.K 2015. Right is Not Always Wrong: DTI and fMRI Evidence for the Reliance of Reading Comprehension on Language Comprehension Networks in the Right Hemisphere Brain Imaging and Behavior , ,

Hutton JS, Horowitz-Kraus T, Mendelsohn AL, DeWitt T, Holland SK 2015. C-MIND Authorship Consortium. Home Reading Environment and Brain Activation in Preschool Children Listening to Stories. Pediatrics, 136 3, 466

Kaiser D, Leach, J. L., Vannest, J., Holland, S.K 2015. Unanticipated Findings in Pediatric Neuroimaging Research: Expectations of Participants and Ethical Responsibilities of Scientists and Physicians Brain Imaging and Behavior, 9 1, 32

Maloney TC, Tenney JR, Szaflarski JP, Vannest J.* 2015. Simultaneous Electroencephalography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Identification of Epileptic Networks in Children. J Pediatr Epilepsy, 4 4, 174

McNamara, Robert K; Vannest, Jennifer J; Valentine, Christina J 2015. Role of perinatal long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in cortical circuit maturation: Mechanisms and implications for psychopathology. World journal of psychiatry, 5 1, 15-34

Pardos M, Korostenskaja M, Xiang J, Fujiwara H, Lee KH, Horn PS, Byars A, Vannest J, Wang Y, Hemasilpin N, Rose DF 2015. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence. Behav Neurol, 2015 237436,

Redle E, Vannest J, Maloney T, Tsevat RK, Eikenberry S, Lewis B, Shriberg LD, Tkach J, Holland SK 2015. Functional MRI evidence for fine motor praxis dysfunction in children with persistent speech disorders Brain Research, 1597 , 47

Sroka MC, Vannest J, Maloney TC, Horowitz-Kraus R, Byars AW, and Holland SK 2015. Relationship between receptive vocabulary and the neural substrates for story processing in preschoolers Brain Imaging and Behavior, 9 17, 43

Szaflarski JP, Ball AL, Vannest J, Dietz AR, Allendorfer JB, Martin AN, Hart K, Lindsell CJ 2015. Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy for Treatment of Chronic Post-Stroke Aphasia: A Randomized, Blinded, Controlled Pilot Trial Med Sci Monit, Sep 24 21, 2861

Vannest J, Maloney T, Kay B, Siegel M, Allendorfer JB, Banks C, Altaye M, Szaflarski JP 2015. Age related-changes in the neural basis of self-generation in verbal paired associate learning. Neuroimage Clin. , Feb 20 7, 537

Vannest J, Tenney JR, Gelineau-Morel R, Maloney T, Glauser TA. 2015. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes Epilepsy Behavior, Apr 45, 85

Horowitz-Kraus T, Vannest JJ, Gozdas E, Holland SK 2014. Greater Utilization of Neural-Circuits Related to Executive Functions is Associated with Better Reading: A Longitudinal fMRI Study Using the Verb Generation Task. Front Hum Neurosci, 20 8, 447

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Gozdas, Elveda; Holland, Scott K 2014. Greater Utilization of Neural-Circuits Related to Executive Functions is Associated with Better Reading: A Longitudinal fMRI Study Using the Verb Generation Task. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8 , 447

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Kadis, Darren; Cicchino, Nicole; Wang, Yingying Y; Holland, Scott K 2014. Reading acceleration training changes brain circuitry in children with reading difficulties. Brain and behavior, 4 6, 886-902

Schmithorst V.J., Vannest, J., Lee, G.R., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Plante, E., Rajagopal, A., Holland S.K 2014. Evidence that neurovascular coupling underlying the BOLD effect increases with age during childhood Human brain mapping, 36 1, 1

Tenney JR, Fujiwara H, Horn PS, Vannest J, Xiang J, Glauser TA, Rose DF 2014. Low- and high-frequency oscillations reveal distinct absence seizure networks. Annals of Neurology, 76 4, 558

Vannest J., Rajagopal, A., Cicchino N.D., Franks-Henry J., Simpson, S.M., Lee, G.R., Altaye, M., Sroka, C., Holland S.K 2014. Factors determining success of awake and asleep MRI in nonsedated children Neuropediatrics, 45 6, 370

Bigras C, Shear PK, Vannest J, Allendorfer JB, Szaflarski JP 2013. The effects of temporal lobe epilepsy on scene encoding. Epilepsy & Behavior, 26 1, 11

Horowitz-Kraus, T., Vannest, J., Holland, S.K 2013. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents Neuropsychologia , 31 13, 2651

Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Vannest, Jennifer J; Holland, Scott K 2013. Overlapping neural circuitry for narrative comprehension and proficient reading in children and adolescents. Neuropsychologia, 51 13, 2651-62

Jacola, L.M., Byars, A.W., Hickey, F., Vannest, J., Holland, S.K., Schapiro, M.B 2013. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of story listening in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: evidence for atypical neurodevelopment J Intellect Disabil Res, ,

Schmithorst, V.J., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Vannest, J., Rajagopal, A., Lee, G., Holland, S.K 2013. Optimized simultaneous ASL and BOLD functional imaging of the whole brain J Magn Reson Imaging, ,

Szaflarski JP Allendorfer JB, Banks CL, Vannest J, Holland SK 2013. Recovered vs. not-recovered from post-stroke aphasia: The contributions from the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Restorative Neurology And Neuroscience , 31 4, 347

Vannest J, Szaflarski JP, Eaton KP, Henkel D, Morita D, Glauser, TA, Byars AW, Patel K, and Holland SK 2013. Functional MRI reveals changes in language localization in children with Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes. Journal of Child Neurology , 28 4, 435

Wu, S.W., Maloney, T., Gilbert, D.L., Dixon, S.G., Horn, P.S., Huddleston, D.A., Eaton, K., Vannest, J 2013. Functional MRI-navigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Supplementary Motor Area in Chronic Tic Disorders. Brain Stimul, ,

. Fisher RS, Blum DE, DiVentura B, Vannest J, Hixson JD, Moss RM, Herman ST, Fureman BE and French JA 2012. Seizure diaries for clinical research and practice: Limitations and future prospects. Epilepsy & Behavior, 24 3, 304

Allendorfer JB, Lindsell CJ, Siegel M, Banks CL, Vannest J, Holland SK, Szaflarski JP 2012. Females and males are highly similar in language performance and cortical activation patterns during verb generation. Cortex, 48 9, 1218

Siegel M, Allendorfer JB, Lindsell CJ, Vannest J, Szaflarski JP 2012. The effects of linguistic relationships among paired associates on verbal self-generation and recognition memory. Brain and Behavior, 2 6, 789

Vannest J, Eaton KP, Henkel D, Siegel M, Tsevat RK, Allendorfer JB, Schefft BK, Banks C, Szaflarski JP. 2012. Cortical correlates of self-generation in verbal paired associate learning. Brain Research, 1437 , 104

Wang YY, Holland SK, Vannest J. 2012. Concordance of MEG and fMRI Patterns in Adolescents during Verb Generation. Brain Research, 1447 , 79

Jacola LM, Byars AW, Chalfonte-Evans M, Schmithorst VJ, Hickey F, Patterson B, Hotze S, Vannest J, Chiu P, Holland SK, Schapiro MB 2011. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of cognitive processing in Down syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities , 116 5, 344

Karunanayaka P, Schmithorst VJ, Vannest J, Szaflarski JP, Plante E, Holland SK 2011. A linear structural equation model for covert verb generation based on independent component analysis of FMRI data from children and adolescents Front Syst Neurosci, 5 , 293

Korostenskaja M, Pardos M, Fujiwara H, Kujala T, Horn P, Rose D, Byars A, Brown D, Seo JH, Wang Y, Vannest J, Xiang J, Degrauw T, Näätänen R, Lee KH 2011. Neuromagnetic evidence of impaired cortical auditory processing in pediatric intractable epilepsy Epilepsy Research, 92 1, 63

Szaflarski JP, Eaton K, Ball AL, Banks C, Vannest J, Allendorfer JB, Page S, Holland SK. 2011. Poststroke Aphasia Recovery Assessed With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and a Picture Identification Task. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 20 4, 336

Szaflarski JP, Vannest J, Wu SW, DiFrancesco MW, Banks C, Gilbert DL 2011. Excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces improvements in chronic post-stroke aphasia Med Sci Monit, 17 3, CR132

Vannest J, Newport EL, Newman AJ, Bavelier D 2011. Interplay between morphology and frequency in lexical access: the case of the base frequency effect Brain Res, 1373 , 144

Wang Y, Xiang J, Vannest J, Holroyd T, Narmoneva D, Horn P, Liu Y, Rose D, Degrauw T, Holland S. 2011. Neuromagnetic measures of word processing in bilinguals and monolinguals Clin Neurophysiol, 122 9, 1706

Karunanayaka, P. R., Schmithorst, V. J., Vannest, J., Szaflarski, J. P., Plante E.M. and Holland S.K 2010. A Group Independent Component Analysis of Covert Verb Generation in Children: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Neuroimage , 51 , 472

Korostenskaja, M., Pardos, M., Fujiwara, H., Kujala, T., Horn, P., Rose, D., Byars, A., Brown, D., Seo, J. H., Wang, Y., Vannest, J., Xiang, J., Degrauw, T., Naatanen, R. & Lee, K. H 2010. Neuromagnetic evidence of impaired cortical auditory processing in pediatric intractable epilepsy. Epilepsy Research, 92 , 63

Vannest, J., Rasmussen, J., Eaton, K.P., Patel, K., Schmithorst, V.J., Karunanayaka, P. R., Plante, E.M., Byars, A.W., & Holland, S.K 2010. fMRI Activation in Language Areas Correlates with Verb Generation Performance in Children Neuropediatrics, 41 , 235

Vannest, J., Karunanayaka, P. R., Schmithorst, V. J., Szaflarski, J. P., Holland S.K 2009. Language networks in children: Evidence from functional MRI studies American J. of Roentgenology, 192 , 1190

Vannest, Jennifer J; Karunanayaka, Prasanna R; Altaye, Mekibib; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Plante, Elena M; Eaton, Kenneth J; Rasmussen, Jerod M; Holland, Scott K 2009. Comparison of fMRI data from passive listening and active-response story processing tasks in children. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI, 29 4, 971-6

Liu, Yinhong; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Yingying; Vannest, Jennifer J; Byars, Anna W; Rose, Douglas F 2008. Spatial and frequency differences of neuromagnetic activities in processing concrete and abstract words. Brain topography, 20 3, 123-9

Vannest, J., Szaflarski, J. P., Privitera, M. D., Schefft, B. K., & Holland, S. K 2008. Medial temporal fMRI activation reflects memory lateralization and memory performance in patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behavior, 12 3, 410

Wang, Y., Xiang, J., Kotecha, R., Vannest, J., Liu, Y., Rose, D., et al 2008. Spatial and Frequency Differences of Neuromagnetic Activities Between the Perception of Open- and Closed-class Words Brain Topogr, 21 2, 75

Holland S.K, Vannest, J., Jacola, L. M., Tillema, J-M., Karunanayaka, P. R., Schmithorst, V. J., Yuan, W., Plante, E., and Byars, A.W 2007. Functional MRI of Language Lateralization During Development in Children. International Journal of Audiology , 46 , 533

Vannest, J., Polk, T. A., and Lewis, R. L. 2005. Dual-Route Processing of Complex Words: New fMRI Evidence from Derivational Suffixation Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience , 5 1, 67

Vannest, J., Bertram, R., Jarvikivi, J. and Niemi, J. 2002. Counterintuitive Cross-Linguistic Differences: More morphological computation in English than in Finnish Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 31 , 83

. Vannest, J. and Boland, J. E. 1999. Lexical Morphology and Lexical Access Brain & Language, 68 , 324