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Paul W. Spearman, MD

Professor-Affiliate

Pediatrics | College of Medicine

Contact Information
Research Interests

The devastating AIDS epidemic in the 1980s led me to a career in the area of infectious diseases. While the major motivation for working in this area is to prevent or treat infections, I’ve also always loved the intellectual detective work involved in deciphering an illness.

My strong desire to investigate HIV led me to take part in and then lead HIV vaccine trials. Along the way, I learned the science of vaccinology. The interest I have in vaccines has increased over time, as the imp...

Peer Reviewed Publications

Anderson, Evan; Jackson, Lisa; Rouphael, Nadine; Widge, Alicia; Montefiori, David; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Suthar, Mehul; Cohen, Kristen; O'Connell, Sarah; Makowski, Mat; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Buchanan, Wendy; Spearman, Paul; Creech, C Buddy; O'Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen; Leav, Brett; Bennett, Hamilton; Pajon, Rolando; Posavad, Christine; Hural, John; Beigel, John; Albert, Jim; Abebe, Kuleni; Eaton, Amanda; Rostad, Christina; Rebolledo, Paulina; Kamidani, Satoshi; Graciaa, Daniel; Coler, Rhea; McDermott, Adrian; Ledgerwood, Julie; Mascola, John; DeRosa, Stephen; Neuzil, Kathleen; McElrath, M Juliana; Roberts, Paul 2022. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Third Dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine â€" An Interim Analysis. Research square, ,

Atmar, Robert L; Lyke, Kirsten E; Deming, Meagan E; Jackson, Lisa A; Branche, Angela R; El Sahly, Hana M; Rostad, Christina A; Martin, Judith M; Johnston, Christine; Rupp, Richard E; Mulligan, Mark J; Brady, Rebecca C; Frenck, Robert W; Bäcker, Martín; Kottkamp, Angelica C; Babu, Tara M; Rajakumar, Kumaravel; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Dobrzynski, David; Coler, Rhea N; Posavad, Christine M; Archer, Janet I; Crandon, Sonja; Nayak, Seema U; Szydlo, Daniel; Zemanek, Jillian A; Dominguez Islas, Clara P; Brown, Elizabeth R; Suthar, Mehul S; McElrath, M Juliana; McDermott, Adrian B; O'Connell, Sarah E; Montefiori, David C; Eaton, Amanda; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Stephens, David S; Roberts, Paul C; Beigel, John H 2022. Homologous and Heterologous Covid-19 Booster Vaccinations. The New England journal of medicine, 386 11, 1046-1057

Le, Hung; Spearman, Paul; Waggoner, Stephen N; Singh, Karnail 2022. Ebola virus protein VP40 stimulates IL-12- and IL-18-dependent activation of human natural killer cells. JCI insight, ,

Lerner, Grigoriy; Weaver, Nicholas; Anokhin, Boris; Spearman, Paul 2022. Advances in HIV-1 Assembly. Viruses, 14 3,

Ortiz, Justin R; Spearman, Paul W; Goepfert, Paul A; Cross, Kaitlyn; Buddy Creech, C; Chen, Wilbur H; Parker, Susan; Overton, Edgar T; Dickey, Michelle; Logan, Heather L; Wegel, Ashley; Neuzil, Kathleen M 2022. Safety and immunogenicity of monovalent H7N9 influenza vaccine with AS03 adjuvant given sequentially or simultaneously with a seasonal influenza vaccine: A randomized clinical trial. Vaccine, 40 23, 3253-3262

Alarcon, Pablo C; Damen, Michelle S M A; Madan, Rajat; Deepe, George S; Spearman, Paul; Way, Sing Sing; Divanovic, Senad 2021. Adipocyte inflammation and pathogenesis of viral pneumonias: an overlooked contribution. Mucosal immunology, 14 6, 1224-1234

Anderson, Evan J; Campbell, James D; Creech, C Buddy; Frenck, Robert; Kamidani, Satoshi; Munoz, Flor M; Nachman, Sharon; Spearman, Paul 2021. Warp Speed for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccines: Why Are Children Stuck in Neutral? Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 73 2, 336-340

Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Khalil, Nadim; Divanovic, Allison; Frenck, Robert; Grimley, Michael; Iliopoulos, Ilias; Marsh, Rebecca; Paulsen, Grant; Phillips, Christine L; Schulert, Grant; Spearman, Paul; Blum, Samantha; Hui-Chin Ho, Jennifer 2021. Novel Treatment of Infant With COVID-19 With the Sialidase Fusion Protein, DAS181. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 40 6, e234-e235

Davis, Greg; York, Allen J; Bacon, Willis Clark; Lin, Suh-Chin; McNeal, Monica Malone; Yarawsky, Alexander E; Maciag, Joseph J; Miller, Jeanette L C; Locker, Kathryn C S; Bailey, Michelle; Stone, Rebecca; Hall, Michael; Gonzalez, Judith; Sproles, Alyssa; Woodle, E Steve; Safier, Kristen; Justus, Kristine A; Spearman, Paul; Ware, Russell E; Cancelas, Jose A; Jordan, Michael B; Herr, Andrew B; Hildeman, David A; Molkentin, Jeffery D 2021. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Cincinnati Ohio USA from August to December 2020. PloS one, 16 7, e0254667

Fan, Xian; Murray, Shannon C; Staitieh, Bashar S; Spearman, Paul; Guidot, David M 2021. HIV Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Function via MicroRNA-144-Induced Suppression of Nrf2. The American journal of the medical sciences, 361 1, 90-97

Scaggs Huang, Felicia; Spearman, Paul; Baldwin, Nicole; Schaffzin, Joshua K 2021. Pediatric Infectious Disease Specialists: An Answer to Social Media Misinformation on Coronavirus Disease 2019. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 10 6, 703-705

Seaton, Kelly E; Deal, Aaron; Han, Xue; Li, Shuying S; Clayton, Ashley; Heptinstall, Jack; Duerr, Ann; Allen, Mary A; Shen, Xiaoying; Sawant, Sheetal; Yates, Nicole L; Spearman, Paul; Churchyard, Gavin; Goepfert, Paul A; Maenza, Janine; Gray, Glenda; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Polakowski, Laura; Robinson, Harriet L; Grant, Shannon; Randhawa, April K; Huang, Ying; Morgan, Cecilia; Grunenberg, Nicole; Karuna, Shelly; Gilbert, Peter B; McElrath, M Juliana; Huang, Yunda; Tomaras, Georgia D 2021. Meta-analysis of HIV-1 vaccine elicited mucosal antibodies in humans. NPJ vaccines, 6 1, 56

Spearman, Paul 2021. Diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2/COVID19. Current opinion in pediatrics, 33 1, 122-128

Xiao, Peng; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Chen, Xuemin; Wei, Huiling; Phan, Shannon; Beavis, Ashley C; Singh, Karnail; Adhikary, Nihar R Deb; Tiwari, Pooja; Villinger, Francois; He, Biao; Spearman, Paul 2021. Parainfluenza Virus 5 Priming Followed by SIV/HIV Virus-Like-Particle Boosting Induces Potent and Durable Immune Responses in Nonhuman Primates. Frontiers in immunology, 12 , 623996

Rai, Mohammad A; Hammonds, Jason; Pujato, Mario; Mayhew, Christopher; Roskin, Krishna; Spearman, Paul 2020. Comparative analysis of human microglial models for studies of HIV replication and pathogenesis. Retrovirology, 17 1, 35

Roskin, Krishnan; Spearman, Paul 2020. HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Take the Road Less Traveled, and That Makes All the Difference. Cell host & microbe, 27 4, 487-488

Singh, Karnail; Marasini, Bishal; Chen, Xuemin; Ding, Lingmei; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Xiao, Peng; Villinger, Francois; Spearman, Paul 2020. A Bivalent, Spherical Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Enhances Breadth of Immune Responses against Pathogenic Ebola Viruses in Rhesus Macaques. Journal of virology, 94 9,

Brown, Peter ; Zhou, Yaoqi 2019. Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search. Database : the journal of biological databases and curation, 2019 ,

Buffone, Cindy; Kutzner, Juliane; Opp, Silvana; Martinez-Lopez, Alicia; Selyutina, Anastasia; Coggings, Si Ana; Studdard, Lydia R; Ding, Lingmei; Kim, Baek; Spearman, Paul; Schaller, Torsten; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe 2019. The ability of SAMHD1 to block HIV-1 but not SIV requires expression of MxB. Virology, 531 , 260-268

Gilsdorf, Janet R; Spearman, Paul; Englund, Janet A; Tan, Tina Q; Bryant, Kristina A 2019. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Meets the Future. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 8 1, 9-12

Ikranbegiin, Riza; Schmid, George; Hoos, David; Young, Andrew; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Spearman, Paul; Ramos, Artur; Alemayehu, Bereket; Achmetova, Begaiym; Nauryzova, Gulzhan; Albetkova, Adilya 2019. Challenges and solutions for instituting an efficient maintenance program for laboratory equipment in Central Asian, and developing world, countries. BMC public health, 19 Suppl 3, 476

Spearman, Paul; Bryson, Yvonne J 2019. The future of careers in pediatric infectious diseases: a call to action. Current opinion in pediatrics, 31 1, 144-147

Spearman, Paul; Tomaras, Georgia D; Montefiori, David C; Huang, Ying; Elizaga, Marnie L; Ferrari, Guido; Alam, S Munir; Isaacs, Abby; Ahmed, Hasan; Hural, John; McElrath, M Juliana; Ouedraogo, Laissa; Pensiero, Michael; Butler, Chris; Kalams, Spyros A; Overton, Edgar Turner; Barnett, Susan W 2019. Rapid Boosting of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Humans Following a Prolonged Immunologic Rest Period. The Journal of infectious diseases, 219 11, 1755-1765

Houser, Katherine V; Yamshchikov, Galina V; Bellamy, Abbie R; May, Jeanine; Enama, Mary E; Sarwar, Uzma; Larkin, Brenda; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard; Paskel, Myeisha; Subbarao, Kanta; Anderson, Edwin; Bernstein, David I; Creech, Buddy; Keyserling, Harry; Spearman, Paul; Wright, Peter F; Graham, Barney S; Ledgerwood, Julie E 2018. DNA vaccine priming for seasonal influenza vaccine in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years of age: A phase 1 randomized clinical trial. PloS one, 13 11, e0206837

Kirschman, Junghwa; Qi, Mingli; Ding, Lingmei; Hammonds, Jason; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul 2018. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking through the Endosomal Recycling Compartment Is Required for Particle Incorporation. Journal of virology, 92 5,

Rampoldi, Antonio; Crooke, Stephen N; Preininger, Marcela K; Jha, Rajneesh; Maxwell, Joshua; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul; Finn, M G; Xu, Chunhui 2018. Targeted Elimination of Tumorigenic Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Suicide-Inducing Virus-like Particles. ACS chemical biology, 13 8, 2329-2338

Singh, Karnail; Marasini, Bishal; Chen, Xuemin; Spearman, Paul 2018. A novel Ebola virus antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (Ebola ADCC) assay. Journal of immunological methods, 460 , 10-16

Spearman, Paul 2018. Viral interactions with host cell Rab GTPases. Small GTPases, 9 1-2, 192-201

Hammonds, Jason E; Beeman, Neal; Ding, Lingmei; Takushi, Sarah; Francis, Ashwanth C; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Melikyan, Gregory B; Spearman, Paul 2017. Siglec-1 initiates formation of the virus-containing compartment and enhances macrophage-to-T cell transmission of HIV-1. PLoS pathogens, 13 1, e1006181

Hampton, Cheri M; Strauss, Joshua D; Ke, Zunlong; Dillard, Rebecca S; Hammonds, Jason E; Alonas, Eric; Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Storms, Rachel E; Leon, Fredrick; Melikyan, Gregory B; Santangelo, Philip J; Spearman, Paul W; Wright, Elizabeth R 2017. Correlated fluorescence microscopy and cryo-electron tomography of virus-infected or transfected mammalian cells. Nature protocols, 12 1, 150-167

Heit, Antje; Schmitz, Frank; Gerdts, Sarah; Flach, Britta; Moore, Miranda S; Perkins, Jonathan A; Robins, Harlan S; Aderem, Alan; Spearman, Paul; Tomaras, Georgia D; De Rosa, Stephen C; McElrath, M Juliana 2017. Vaccination establishes clonal relatives of germinal center T cells in the blood of humans. The Journal of experimental medicine, 214 7, 2139-2152

Kasturi, Sudhir Pai; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Nakaya, Helder I; Burger, Matheus C; Russo, Pedro; Pham, Mathew; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy; Silveira, Eduardo L V; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Burton, Samantha L; Kilgore, Katie M; Johnson, Mathew J; Nabi, Rafiq; Legere, Traci; Sher, Zarpheen Jinnah; Chen, Xuemin; Amara, Rama R; Hunter, Eric; Bosinger, Steven E; Spearman, Paul; Crotty, Shane; Villinger, Francois; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Wrammert, Jens; Pulendran, Bali 2017. Adjuvanting a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine with Toll-Like Receptor Ligands Encapsulated in Nanoparticles Induces Persistent Antibody Responses and Enhanced Protection in TRIM5? Restrictive Macaques. Journal of virology, 91 4,

Lai, Cheng-Yuan Kevin; Foot, Peter J S; Brown, John W; Spearman, Peter 2017. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer. Biosensors, 7 1,

Staitieh, Bashar S; Ding, Lingmei; Neveu, Wendy A; Spearman, Paul; Guidot, David M; Fan, Xian 2017. HIV-1 decreases Nrf2/ARE activity and phagocytic function in alveolar macrophages. Journal of leukocyte biology, 102 2, 517-525

Yuan, Zhihong; Fan, Xian; Staitieh, Bashar; Bedi, Chetna; Spearman, Paul; Guidot, David M; Sadikot, Ruxana T 2017. HIV-related proteins prolong macrophage survival through induction of Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. Scientific reports, 7 , 42028

Currier, Michael G; Lee, Sujin; Stobart, Christopher C; Hotard, Anne L; Villenave, Remi; Meng, Jia; Pretto, Carla D; Shields, Michael D; Nguyen, Minh Trang; Todd, Sean O; Chi, Michael H; Hammonds, Jason; Krumm, Stefanie A; Spearman, Paul; Plemper, Richard K; Sakamoto, Kaori; Peebles, R Stokes; Power, Ultan F; Moore, Martin L 2016. EGFR Interacts with the Fusion Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Strain 2-20 and Mediates Infection and Mucin Expression. PLoS pathogens, 12 5, e1005622

Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Kalams, Spyros A; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E 2016. Low frequency of broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies during chronic infection even in quaternary epitope targeting antibodies containing large numbers of somatic mutations. Molecular immunology, 70 , 94-103

Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Sulli, Chidananda; Barnes, Trevor; Goodman, Jason; Sojar, Hakimuddin; Briney, Bryan; Willis, Jordan; Chukwuma, Valentine U; Kalams, Spyros A; Doranz, Benjamin J; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E 2016. Human Antibodies that Recognize Novel Immunodominant Quaternary Epitopes on the HIV-1 Env Protein. PloS one, 11 7, e0158861

Iyer, Smita S; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Victor, Blandine; Shen, Xiaoying; Chen, Xuemin; Nabi, Rafiq; Kasturi, Sudhir P; Sabula, Michael J; Labranche, Celia C; Reddy, Pradeep B J; Tomaras, Georgia D; Montefiori, David C; Moss, Bernard; Spearman, Paul; Pulendran, Bali; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Amara, Rama Rao 2016. Virus-Like Particles Displaying Trimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Envelope gp160 Enhance the Breadth of DNA/Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara SIV Vaccine-Induced Antibody Responses in Rhesus Macaques. Journal of virology, 90 19, 8842-54

Lee, Sujin; Nguyen, Minh Trang; Currier, Michael G; Jenkins, Joe B; Strobert, Elizabeth A; Kajon, Adriana E; Madan-Lala, Ranjna; Bochkov, Yury A; Gern, James E; Roy, Krishnendu; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D; Spearman, Paul; Moore, Martin L 2016. A polyvalent inactivated rhinovirus vaccine is broadly immunogenic in rhesus macaques. Nature communications, 7 , 12838

Spearman, Paul 2016. HIV-1 Gag as an Antiviral Target: Development of Assembly and Maturation Inhibitors. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 16 10, 1154-66

Spearman, Paul; Mulligan, Mark; Anderson, Evan J; Shane, Andi L; Stephens, Kathy; Gibson, Theda; Hartwell, Brooke; Hannaman, Drew; Watson, Nora L; Singh, Karnail 2016. A phase 1, randomized, controlled dose-escalation study of EP-1300 polyepitope DNA vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria administered via electroporation. Vaccine, 34 46, 5571-5578

St Gelais, Corine; Kim, Sun Hee; Ding, Lingmei; Yount, Jacob S; Ivanov, Dmitri; Spearman, Paul; Wu, Li 2016. A Putative Cyclin-binding Motif in Human SAMHD1 Contributes to Protein Phosphorylation, Localization, and Stability. The Journal of biological chemistry, 291 51, 26332-26342

Strauss, Joshua D; Hammonds, Jason E; Yi, Hong; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul; Wright, Elizabeth R 2016. Three-Dimensional Structural Characterization of HIV-1 Tethered to Human Cells. Journal of virology, 90 3, 1507-21

Chukwuma, Valentine U; Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Nicholas, Katherine J; Joyner, Amanda; Kalams, Spyros A; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Spearman, Paul W; Crowe, James E 2015. Association of VH4-59 Antibody Variable Gene Usage with Recognition of an Immunodominant Epitope on the HIV-1 Gag Protein. PloS one, 10 7, e0133509

Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul; Melikyan, Gregory B 2015. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions. Journal of virology, 89 18, 9368-82

Jahanbin, Tania; Sauriat-Dorizon, Hélène; Spearman, Peter; Benderbous, Soraya; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa 2015. Development of Gd(III) porphyrin-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications, 52 , 325-32

Johnson, Erica L; Chu, Hin; Byrareddy, Siddappa Nagadenahalli; Spearman, Paul; Chakraborty, Rana 2015. Placental Hofbauer cells assemble and sequester HIV-1 in tetraspanin-positive compartments that are accessible to broadly neutralizing antibodies. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 18 , 19385

Qi, Mingli; Chu, Hin; Chen, Xuemin; Choi, Junghwa; Wen, Xiaoyun; Hammonds, Jason; Ding, Lingmei; Hunter, Eric; Spearman, Paul 2015. A tyrosine-based motif in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein tail mediates cell-type- and Rab11-FIP1C-dependent incorporation into virions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112 24, 7575-80

Sakurai, Yumiko; Fitch-Tewfik, Jennifer L; Qiu, Yongzhi; Ahn, Byungwook; Myers, David R; Tran, Reginald; Fay, Meredith E; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul W; Michelson, Alan D; Flaumenhaft, Robert; Lam, Wilbur A 2015. Platelet geometry sensing spatially regulates ?-granule secretion to enable matrix self-deposition. Blood, 126 4, 531-8

Thompson, Amelia B; Wynn, Bridget A; O Akerele, David; A Rostad, Christina; Anderson, Evan J; Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F; Spearman, Paul; Chakraborty, Rana 2015. Acute pancreatitis associated with dolutegravir and lamivudine/abacavir administration. AIDS (London, England), 29 3, 390-2

Williams, Katherine L; Cortez, Valerie; Dingens, Adam S; Gach, Johannes S; Rainwater, Stephanie; Weis, Julie F; Chen, Xuemin; Spearman, Paul; Forthal, Donald N; Overbaugh, Julie 2015. HIV-specific CD4-induced Antibodies Mediate Broad and Potent Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Activity and Are Commonly Detected in Plasma From HIV-infected humans. EBioMedicine, 2 10, 1464-77

Yi, Hong; Strauss, Joshua D; Ke, Zunlong; Alonas, Eric; Dillard, Rebecca S; Hampton, Cheri M; Lamb, Kristen M; Hammonds, Jason E; Santangelo, Philip J; Spearman, Paul W; Wright, Elizabeth R 2015. Native immunogold labeling of cell surface proteins and viral glycoproteins for cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography applications. The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society, 63 10, 780-92

Belshe, Robert B; Frey, Sharon E; Graham, Irene L; Anderson, Edwin L; Jackson, Lisa A; Spearman, Paul; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Mulligan, Mark J; Rouphael, Nadine; Winokur, Patricia; Dolor, Rowena J; Woods, Christopher W; Walter, Emmanuel B; Chen, Wilbur H; Turley, Christine; Edwards, Kathryn M; Creech, C Buddy; Hill, Heather; Bellamy, Abbie R 2014. Immunogenicity of avian influenza A/Anhui/01/2005(H5N1) vaccine with MF59 adjuvant: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 312 14, 1420-8

Bernstein, David I; Jackson, Lisa; Patel, Shital M; El Sahly, Hana M; Spearman, Paul; Rouphael, Nadine; Rudge, Thomas L; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B 2014. Immunogenicity and safety of four different dosing regimens of anthrax vaccine adsorbed for post-exposure prophylaxis for anthrax in adults. Vaccine, 32 47, 6284-93

Callahan, S Todd; Wolff, Mark; Hill, Heather R; Edwards, Kathryn M 2014. Impact of body mass index on immunogenicity of pandemic H1N1 vaccine in children and adults. The Journal of infectious diseases, 210 8, 1270-4

Ellebedy, Ali H; Krammer, Florian; Li, Gui-Mei; Miller, Matthew S; Chiu, Christopher; Wrammert, Jens; Chang, Cathy Y; Davis, Carl W; McCausland, Megan; Elbein, Rivka; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Spearman, Paul; Andrews, Sarah F; Wilson, Patrick C; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Mulligan, Mark J; Mehta, Aneesh K; Palese, Peter; Ahmed, Rafi 2014. Induction of broadly cross-reactive antibody responses to the influenza HA stem region following H5N1 vaccination in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111 36, 13133-8

Kiss, Gabriella; Chen, Xuemin; Brindley, Melinda A; Campbell, Patricia; Afonso, Claudio L; Ke, Zunlong; Holl, Jens M; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A; Steel, John; Steinhauer, David A; Plemper, Richard K; Kelly, Deborah F; Spearman, Paul W; Wright, Elizabeth R 2014. Capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids for downstream cryo-electron microscopy applications. Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America, Microbeam Analysis Society, Microscopical Society of Canada, 20 1, 164-74

Mulligan, Mark J; Bernstein, David I; Frey, Sharon; Winokur, Patricia; Rouphael, Nadine; Dickey, Michelle; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Spearman, Paul; Anderson, Edwin; Graham, Irene; Noah, Diana L; Mangal, Brian; Kim, Sonnie; Hill, Heather; Whitaker, Jenifer; Emery, William; Beck, Allison; Stephens, Kathy; Hartwell, Brooke; Ogilvie, Melinda; Rimann, Nayoka; Osinski, Eileen; Destefano, Ellen; Gajadhar, Theda; Strudwick, Amanda; Pierce, Karen; Lai, Lilin; Yue, Ling; Wang, Dongli; Ying, Carl; Cline, Amy; Foltz, Tara; Wagner, Nancy; Dull, Geraldine; Pacatte, Thomas; Taggart, Barbara; Johnson, Valerie; Haller, Logan; Looney, Candi; Li, Shixiong; May, Megan; Myers, Bridgette; May, Rachel; Parker, Lawanda; Cochran, Nertaissa; Bowen, Donna; Bell, Michelle; Scoggins, Jeffery; Burns, Angela; Stablein, Claire; Wolff, Mark; Jolles, Bernadette; Leung, Brenda; Lambert, Linda; Shorer, Shy; Buchanan, Wendy; Murray, Suzanne; Chang, Soju; Gorman, Richard 2014. Point-of-Use Mixing of Influenza H5N1 Vaccine and MF59 Adjuvant for Pandemic Vaccination Preparedness: Antibody Responses and Safety. A Phase 1 Clinical Trial. Open forum infectious diseases, 1 3, ofu102

Mulligan, Mark J; Bernstein, David I; Winokur, Patricia; Rupp, Richard; Anderson, Evan; Rouphael, Nadine; Dickey, Michelle; Stapleton, Jack T; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Spearman, Paul; Ince, Dilek; Noah, Diana L; Hill, Heather; Bellamy, Abbie R 2014. Serological responses to an avian influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed at the point-of-use with MF59 adjuvant: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 312 14, 1409-19

Nguyen, Doan C; Hookway, Tracy A; Wu, Qingling; Jha, Rajneesh; Preininger, Marcela K; Chen, Xuemin; Easley, Charles A; Spearman, Paul; Deshpande, Shriprasad R; Maher, Kevin; Wagner, Mary B; McDevitt, Todd C; Xu, Chunhui 2014. Microscale generation of cardiospheres promotes robust enrichment of cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Stem cell reports, 3 2, 260-8

Pereira, Lara E; Clark, Jasmine; Grznarova, Petra; Wen, Xiaoyun; LaCasse, Rachel; Ruml, Tomas; Spearman, Paul; Hunter, Eric 2014. Direct evidence for intracellular anterograde co-transport of M-PMV Gag and Env on microtubules. Virology, 449 , 109-19

Persano, Luana; Camposeo, Andrea; Pisignano, Dario; Burini, Andrea; Spearman, Peter; Tavazzi, Silvia 2014. Electron-beam nanopatterning and spectral modulation of organic molecular light-emitting single crystals. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 30 6, 1643-9

Rosebush, Julia; Summers, Ryan; Snitzer, Joseph; Jerris, Robert; Satola, Sarah; Spearman, Paul 2014. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus empyema Necessitatis in a breast-fed neonate. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 33 6, 668-9

Wen, Xiaoyun; Ding, Lingmei; Hunter, Eric; Spearman, Paul 2014. An siRNA screen of membrane trafficking genes highlights pathways common to HIV-1 and M-PMV virus assembly and release. PloS one, 9 9, e106151

Wen, Xiaoyun; Ding, Lingmei; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Qi, Mingli; Hammonds, Jason; Chu, Hin; Chen, Xuemin; Hunter, Eric; Spearman, Paul 2014. ROCK1 and LIM kinase modulate retrovirus particle release and cell-cell transmission events. Journal of virology, 88 12, 6906-21

Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres; Spearman, Paul W; Stoll, Barbara J 2013. Neonatal infectious diseases: evaluation of neonatal sepsis. Pediatric clinics of North America, 60 2, 367-89

Clark, Jasmine; Grznarova, Petra; Stansell, Elizabeth; Diehl, William; Lipov, Jan; Spearman, Paul; Ruml, Tomas; Hunter, Eric 2013. A Mason-Pfizer Monkey virus Gag-GFP fusion vector allows visualization of capsid transport in live cells and demonstrates a role for microtubules. PloS one, 8 12, e83863

Qi, Mingli; Williams, Janice A; Chu, Hin; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Ding, Lingmei; Akhirome, Ehiole; Wen, Xiaoyun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul 2013. Rab11-FIP1C and Rab14 direct plasma membrane sorting and particle incorporation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex. PLoS pathogens, 9 4, e1003278

Chu, Hin; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Qi, Mingli; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Chen, Xuemin; Wen, Xiaoyun; Hammonds, Jason; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2012. Tetherin/BST-2 is essential for the formation of the intracellular virus-containing compartment in HIV-infected macrophages. Cell host & microbe, 12 3, 360-72

Chu, Hin; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Qi, Mingli; Yoon, Jeong-Joong; Wen, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xuemin; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2012. The intracellular virus-containing compartments in primary human macrophages are largely inaccessible to antibodies and small molecules. PloS one, 7 5, e35297

Hammonds, Jason; Ding, Lingmei; Chu, Hin; Geller, Ken; Robbins, Andrew; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Yi, Hong; Spearman, Paul 2012. The tetherin/BST-2 coiled-coil ectodomain mediates plasma membrane microdomain localization and restriction of particle release. Journal of virology, 86 4, 2259-72

Hammonds, Jason; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Spearman, Paul 2012. Restriction of Retroviral Replication by Tetherin/BST-2. Molecular biology international, 2012 , 424768

Kyere, Sampson K; Mercredi, Peter Y; Dong, Xinhong; Spearman, Paul; Summers, Michael F 2012. The HIV-1 matrix protein does not interact directly with the protein interactive domain of AP-3?. Virus research, 169 2, 411-4

Li, Liuzhe; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Banerjee, Sagarika; Volsky, Barbara; Williams, Constance; Virland, Diana; Nadas, Arthur; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Xuemin; Spearman, Paul; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K 2012. Different pattern of immunoglobulin gene usage by HIV-1 compared to non-HIV-1 antibodies derived from the same infected subject. PloS one, 7 6, e39534

Liu, Ling; Sutton, Jessica; Woodruff, Elvin; Villalta, Fernando; Spearman, Paul; Dong, Xinhong 2012. Defective HIV-1 particle assembly in AP-3-deficient cells derived from patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. Journal of virology, 86 20, 11242-53

Wright, Elizabeth R; Spearman, Paul W 2012. Unraveling the structural basis of HIV-1 neutralization. Future microbiology, 7 11, 1251-4

Belshe, Robert B; Frey, Sharon E; Graham, Irene; Mulligan, Mark J; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Jackson, Lisa A; Wald, Anna; Poland, Gregory; Jacobson, Robert; Keyserling, Harry L; Spearman, Paul; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark 2011. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza A H5 subunit vaccines: effect of vaccine schedule and antigenic variant. The Journal of infectious diseases, 203 5, 666-73

Coleman, Christopher M; Spearman, Paul; Wu, Li 2011. Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef. Retrovirology, 8 , 26

Cooper, JoAnn; Liu, Ling; Woodruff, Elvin A; Taylor, Harry E; Goodwin, J Shawn; D'Aquila, Richard T; Spearman, Paul; Hildreth, James E K; Dong, Xinhong 2011. Filamin A protein interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein and contributes to productive particle assembly. The Journal of biological chemistry, 286 32, 28498-510

Dang, Ying; Abudu, Aierken; Son, Sungmo; Harjes, Elena; Spearman, Paul; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Zheng, Yong-Hui 2011. Identification of a single amino acid required for APOBEC3 antiretroviral cytidine deaminase activity. Journal of virology, 85 11, 5691-5

Pan, George; Zheng, Rui; Yang, Pingar; Li, Yao; Clancy, John P; Liu, Jianzhong; Feng, Xu; Garber, David A; Spearman, Paul; McDonald, Jay M 2011. Nucleosides accelerate inflammatory osteolysis, acting as distinct innate immune activators. Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 26 8, 1913-25

Spearman, Paul; Lally, Michelle A; Elizaga, Marnie; Montefiori, David; Tomaras, Georgia D; McElrath, M Juliana; Hural, John; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Huang, Yunda; Frey, Sharon E; Sato, Paul; Donnelly, John; Barnett, Susan; Corey, Lawrence J 2011. A trimeric, V2-deleted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine elicits potent neutralizing antibodies but limited breadth of neutralization in human volunteers. The Journal of infectious diseases, 203 8, 1165-73

Ali, Mohammed S; Hammonds, Jason; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2010. CAML does not modulate tetherin-mediated restriction of HIV-1 particle release. PloS one, 5 2, e9005

Graham, Barney S; McElrath, M Juliana; Keefer, Michael C; Rybczyk, Kyle; Berger, David; Weinhold, Kent J; Ottinger, Janet; Ferarri, Guido; Montefiori, David C; Stablein, Don; Smith, Carol; Ginsberg, Richard; Eldridge, John; Duerr, Ann; Fast, Pat; Haynes, Barton F 2010. Immunization with cocktail of HIV-derived peptides in montanide ISA-51 is immunogenic, but causes sterile abscesses and unacceptable reactogenicity. PloS one, 5 8, e11995

Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul 2010. An imperfect rule for the particle roost. Cell host & microbe, 7 4, 261-263

Hammonds, Jason; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Yi, Hong; Spearman, Paul 2010. Immunoelectron microscopic evidence for Tetherin/BST2 as the physical bridge between HIV-1 virions and the plasma membrane. PLoS pathogens, 6 2, e1000749

Hicar, Mark D; Chen, Xuemin; Briney, Bryan; Hammonds, Jason; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Kalams, Spyros; Spearman, Paul W; Crowe, James E 2010. Pseudovirion particles bearing native HIV envelope trimers facilitate a novel method for generating human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against HIV. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 54 3, 223-35

Hicar, Mark D; Kalams, Spyros A; Spearman, Paul W; Crowe, James E 2010. Emerging studies of human HIV-specific antibody repertoires. Vaccine, 28 Suppl 2 , B18-23

Tavazzi, Silvia; Silvestri, Leonardo; Miozzo, Luciano; Papagni, Antonio; Spearman, Peter; Ianelli, Sandra; Girlando, Alberto; Camposeo, Andrea; Polo, Marco; Pisignano, Dario 2010. Polarized absorption, spontaneous and stimulated blue light emission of J-type tetraphenylbutadiene monocrystals. Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry, 11 2, 429-34

, 2009. Grinding to a halt: the effects of the increasing regulatory burden on research and quality improvement efforts. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 49 3, 328-35

Chu, Hin; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Spearman, Paul 2009. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gag and host vesicular trafficking pathways. Current topics in microbiology and immunology, 339 , 67-84

Dou, Jun; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Chen, Xuemin; Li, Hua; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2009. Characterization of a myristoylated, monomeric HIV Gag protein. Virology, 387 2, 341-52

Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul 2009. Tetherin is as tetherin does. Cell, 139 3, 456-7

Harro, Clayton; Sun, Xiao; Stek, Jon E; Leavitt, Randi Y; Mehrotra, Devan V; Wang, Fubao; Bett, Andrew J; Casimiro, Danilo R; Shiver, John W; DiNubile, Mark J; Quirk, Erin 2009. Safety and immunogenicity of the Merck adenovirus serotype 5 (MRKAd5) and MRKAd6 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trigene vaccines alone and in combination in healthy adults. Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI, 16 9, 1285-92

Jung, Jesse J; Vu, David M; Clark, Bradley; Keller, Frank G; Spearman, Paul 2009. Neisseria sicca/subflava bacteremia presenting as cutaneous nodules in an immunocompromised host. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 28 7, 661-3

Silvestri, Leonardo; Tavazzi, Silvia; Spearman, Peter; Raimondo, Luisa; Spano, Frank C 2009. Exciton-phonon coupling in molecular crystals: synergy between two intramolecular vibrational modes in quaterthiophene single crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 130 23, 234701

Spearman, Paul; Kalams, Spyros; Elizaga, Marnie; Metch, Barbara; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Allen, Mary; Weinhold, Kent J; Ferrari, Guido; Parker, Scott D; McElrath, M Juliana; Frey, Sharon E; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Keefer, Michael C; Lubeck, Michael D; Egan, Michael; Braun, Ralph; Eldridge, John H; Haynes, Barton F; Corey, Lawrence 2009. Safety and immunogenicity of a CTL multiepitope peptide vaccine for HIV with or without GM-CSF in a phase I trial. Vaccine, 27 2, 243-9

Derdowski, Aaron; Peters, Timothy R; Glover, Nancy; Qian, Ray; Utley, Thomas J; Burnett, Atuhani; Williams, John V; Spearman, Paul; Crowe, James E 2008. Human metapneumovirus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein interact and provide the minimal requirements for inclusion body formation. The Journal of general virology, 89 Pt 11, 2698-2708

Priddy, Frances H; Brown, Deborah; Kublin, James; Monahan, Kathleen; Wright, David P; Lalezari, Jacob; Santiago, Steven; Marmor, Michael; Lally, Michelle; Novak, Richard M; Brown, Stephen J; Kulkarni, Priya; Dubey, Sheri A; Kierstead, Lisa S; Casimiro, Danilo R; Mogg, Robin; DiNubile, Mark J; Shiver, John W; Leavitt, Randi Y; Robertson, Michael N; Mehrotra, Devan V; Quirk, Erin 2008. Safety and immunogenicity of a replication-incompetent adenovirus type 5 HIV-1 clade B gag/pol/nef vaccine in healthy adults. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 46 11, 1769-81

Sharma, Dolly; Spearman, Paul 2008. The impact of cesarean delivery on transmission of infectious agents to the neonate. Clinics in perinatology, 35 2, 407-20, vii-viii

Tavazzi, S; Raimondo, L; Silvestri, L; Spearman, P; Camposeo, A; Polo, M; Pisignano, D 2008. Dielectric tensor of tetracene single crystals: the effect of anisotropy on polarized absorption and emission spectra. The Journal of chemical physics, 128 15, 154709

Varthakavi, Vasundhara; Heimann-Nichols, Ellen; Smith, Rita M; Sun, Yuehui; Bram, Richard J; Ali, Showkat; Rose, Jeremy; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2008. Identification of calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand as a human host restriction to HIV-1 release overcome by Vpu. Nature medicine, 14 6, 641-7

Wang, Tao; Zhang, Wenyan; Tian, Chunjuan; Liu, Bindong; Yu, Yunkai; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul; Yu, Xiao-Fang 2008. Distinct viral determinants for the packaging of human cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G and APOBEC3C. Virology, 377 1, 71-9

Burnett, Atuhani; Spearman, Paul 2007. APOBEC3G multimers are recruited to the plasma membrane for packaging into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virus-like particles in an RNA-dependent process requiring the NC basic linker. Journal of virology, 81 10, 5000-13

Goepfert, Paul A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Horton, Helen; Montefiori, David; Ferrari, Guido; Deers, Mark; Voss, Gerald; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Pedneault, Louise; Vandepapeliere, Pierre; McElrath, M Juliana; Spearman, Paul; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Koblin, Beryl A; Blattner, William A; Frey, Sharon; Baden, Lindsey R; Harro, Clayton; Evans, Thomas 2007. Durable HIV-1 antibody and T-cell responses elicited by an adjuvanted multi-protein recombinant vaccine in uninfected human volunteers. Vaccine, 25 3, 510-8

Hammonds, Jason; Chen, Xuemin; Zhang, Xiugen; Lee, Francis; Spearman, Paul 2007. Advances in methods for the production, purification, and characterization of HIV-1 Gag-Env pseudovirion vaccines. Vaccine, 25 47, 8036-48

Li, Hua; Dou, Jun; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2007. Myristoylation is required for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag-Gag multimerization in mammalian cells. Journal of virology, 81 23, 12899-910

Spano, F C; Silvestri, L; Spearman, P; Raimondo, L; Tavazzi, S 2007. Reclassifying exciton-phonon coupling in molecular aggregates: evidence of strong nonadiabatic coupling in oligothiophene crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 127 18, 184703

Tavazzi, S; Miozzo, L; Papagni, A; Raimondo, L; Silvestri, L; Spearman, P; Camposeo, A; Polo, M; Pisignano, D 2007. Exciton self-trapping in tetrafluoro-dimethyl-aminoacridine single crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 126 23, 234501

Zhang, Xiugen; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah; Eller, Mike; Currier, Jeff; Slike, Bonnie M; Chen, Xuemin; Tartaglia, James; Marovich, Mary; Spearman, Paul 2007. Direct comparison of antigen production and induction of apoptosis by canarypox virus- and modified vaccinia virus ankara-human immunodeficiency virus vaccine vectors. Journal of virology, 81 13, 7022-33

Raimondo, L; Laicini, M; Spearman, P; Tavazzi, S; Borghesi, A 2006. Effect of static and dynamic disorder on exciton mobility in oligothiophenes. The Journal of chemical physics, 125 2, 24702

Spearman, Paul 2006. Cellular cofactors involved in HIV assembly and budding. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS, 1 3, 200-7

Spearman, Paul 2006. Current progress in the development of HIV vaccines. Current pharmaceutical design, 12 9, 1147-67

Tavazzi, S; Campione, M; Laicini, M; Raimondo, L; Borghesi, A; Spearman, P 2006. Measured Davydov splitting in oligothiophene crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 124 19, 194710

Varthakavi, Vasundhara; Smith, Rita M; Martin, Kenneth L; Derdowski, Aaron; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul 2006. The pericentriolar recycling endosome plays a key role in Vpu-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 particle release. Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark), 7 3, 298-307

Batonick, Melissa; Favre, Manuel; Boge, Michael; Spearman, Paul; Höning, Stefan; Thali, Markus 2005. Interaction of HIV-1 Gag with the clathrin-associated adaptor AP-2. Virology, 342 2, 190-200

Chen, Xuemin; Rock, Michael T; Hammonds, Jason; Tartaglia, James; Shintani, Ayumi; Currier, Jeff; Slike, Bonnie; Crowe, James E; Marovich, Mary; Spearman, Paul 2005. Pseudovirion particle production by live poxvirus human immunodeficiency virus vaccine vector enhances humoral and cellular immune responses. Journal of virology, 79 9, 5537-47

Dong, Xinhong; Li, Hua; Derdowski, Aaron; Ding, Lingmei; Burnett, Atuhani; Chen, Xuemin; Peters, Timothy R; Dermody, Terence S; Woodruff, Elvin; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Spearman, Paul 2005. AP-3 directs the intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Gag and plays a key role in particle assembly. Cell, 120 5, 663-74

Goepfert, Paul A; Horton, Helen; McElrath, M Juliana; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Ferrari, Guido; Tomaras, Georgia D; Montefiori, David C; Allen, Mary; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Spearman, Paul; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Koblin, Beryl A; Blattner, William A; Frey, Sharon; Keefer, Michael C; Baden, Lindsey R; Corey, Lawrence 2005. High-dose recombinant Canarypox vaccine expressing HIV-1 protein, in seronegative human subjects. The Journal of infectious diseases, 192 7, 1249-59

Hammonds, Jason; Chen, Xuemin; Fouts, Timothy; DeVico, Anthony; Montefiori, David; Spearman, Paul 2005. Induction of neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolates by Gag-Env pseudovirion immunization. Journal of virology, 79 23, 14804-14

Raimondo, L; Laicini, M; Tavazzi, S; Borghesi, A; Spearman, P 2005. Optical transverse excitation in quaterthiophene crystals by ultraviolet-visible internal and attenuated total reflection. The Journal of chemical physics, 122 6, 064706

Spearman, P; Borghesi, A; Campione, M; Laicini, M; Moret, M; Tavazzi, S 2005. Directional dispersion in absorbance spectra of oligothiophene crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 122 1, 14706

Derdowski, Aaron; Ding, Lingmei; Spearman, Paul 2004. A novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay demonstrates that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Pr55Gag I domain mediates Gag-Gag interactions. Journal of virology, 78 3, 1230-42

Tavazzi, S; Borghesi, A; Campione, M; Laicini, M; Trabattoni, S; Spearman, P 2004. Reflectivity and anisotropic optical functions of quaterthiophene single crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 120 15, 7136-40

Tavazzi, S; Borghesi, A; Laicini, M; Spearman, P 2004. Polarized absorption of quaterthiophene single crystals. The Journal of chemical physics, 121 17, 8542-6

Wright, Peter F; Mestecky, Jiri; McElrath, M Juliana; Keefer, Michael C; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Goepfert, Paul A; Moldoveanu, Zina; Schwartz, David; Spearman, Paul W; El Habib, Raphaelle; Spring, Michele D; Zhu, Yuwei; Smith, Carol; Flores, Jorge; Weinhold, Kent J 2004. Comparison of systemic and mucosal delivery of 2 canarypox virus vaccines expressing either HIV-1 genes or the gene for rabies virus G protein. The Journal of infectious diseases, 189 7, 1221-31

Ding, Lingmei; Derdowski, Aaron; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Spearman, Paul 2003. Independent segregation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein complexes and lipid rafts. Journal of virology, 77 3, 1916-26

Haas, D W; Johnson, B W; Spearman, P; Raffanti, S; Nicotera, J; Schmidt, D; Hulgan, T; Shepard, R; Fiscus, S A 2003. Two phases of HIV RNA decay in CSF during initial days of multidrug therapy. Neurology, 61 10, 1391-6

Hammonds, Jason; Chen, Xuemin; Ding, Lingmei; Fouts, Timothy; De Vico, Anthony; zur Megede, Jan; Barnett, Susan; Spearman, Paul 2003. Gp120 stability on HIV-1 virions and Gag-Env pseudovirions is enhanced by an uncleaved Gag core. Virology, 314 2, 636-49

Nydegger, Sascha; Foti, Michelangelo; Derdowski, Aaron; Spearman, Paul; Thali, Markus 2003. HIV-1 egress is gated through late endosomal membranes. Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark), 4 12, 902-10

Spearman, Paul 2003. HIV vaccine development: lessons from the past and promise for the future. Current HIV research, 1 1, 101-20

Varthakavi, Vasundhara; Smith, Rita M; Bour, Stephan P; Strebel, Klaus; Spearman, Paul 2003. Viral protein U counteracts a human host cell restriction that inhibits HIV-1 particle production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100 25, 15154-9

Gupta, Kalpana; Hudgens, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; McElrath, M Juliana; Weinhold, Kent; Montefiori, David C; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Frey, Sharon E; Keefer, Michael C; Evans, Thomas G; Dolin, Raphael; Schwartz, David H; Harro, Clayton; Graham, Barney; Spearman, Paul W; Mulligan, Mark; Goepfert, Paul 2002. Safety and immunogenicity of a high-titered canarypox vaccine in combination with rgp120 in a diverse population of HIV-1-uninfected adults: AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group Protocol 022A. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999), 29 3, 254-61

Meinardi, F; Cerminara, M; Sassella, A; Borghesi, A; Spearman, P; Bongiovanni, G; Mura, A; Tubino, R 2002. Intrinsic excitonic luminescence in odd and even numbered oligothiophenes. Physical review letters, 89 15, 157403

Varthakavi, Vasundhara; Smith, Rita M; Deng, Hongyu; Sun, Ren; Spearman, Paul 2002. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 activates lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus through induction of KSHV Rta. Virology, 297 2, 270-80

Evans, T G; McElrath, M J; Matthews, T; Montefiori, D; Weinhold, K; Wolff, M; Keefer, M C; Kallas, E G; Corey, L; Gorse, G J; Belshe, R; Graham, B S; Spearman, P W; Schwartz, D; Mulligan, M J; Goepfert, P; Fast, P; Berman, P; Powell, M; Francis, D 2001. QS-21 promotes an adjuvant effect allowing for reduced antigen dose during HIV-1 envelope subunit immunization in humans. Vaccine, 19 15-16, 2080-91

Fang, Z Y; Limbach, K; Tartaglia, J; Hammonds, J; Chen, X; Spearman, P 2001. Expression of vaccinia E3L and K3L genes by a novel recombinant canarypox HIV vaccine vector enhances HIV-1 pseudovirion production and inhibits apoptosis in human cells. Virology, 291 2, 272-84

Spearman, P; Fiscus, S A; Smith, R M; Shepard, R; Johnson, B; Nicotera, J; Harris, V L; Clough, L A; McKinsey, J; Haas, D W 2001. Comparison of Roche MONITOR and Organon Teknika NucliSens assays to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39 4, 1612-4

Wang, J J; Sandefur, S; Spearman, P; Chiou, C T; Chiang, P H; Ratner, L 2001. Tracking the assembly pathway of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag deletion mutants by immunogold labeling. Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM, 9 4, 371-9

Deora, A; Spearman, P; Ratner, L 2000. The N-terminal matrix domain of HIV-1 Gag is sufficient but not necessary for viral protein U-mediated enhancement of particle release through a membrane-targeting mechanism. Virology, 269 2, 305-12

Haas, D W; Clough, L A; Johnson, B W; Harris, V L; Spearman, P; Wilkinson, G R; Fletcher, C V; Fiscus, S; Raffanti, S; Donlon, R; McKinsey, J; Nicotera, J; Schmidt, D; Shoup, R E; Kates, R E; Lloyd, R M; Larder, B 2000. Evidence of a source of HIV type 1 within the central nervous system by ultraintensive sampling of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. AIDS research and human retroviruses, 16 15, 1491-502

Haas, D W; Stone, J; Clough, L A; Johnson, B; Spearman, P; Harris, V L; Nicotera, J; Johnson, R H; Raffanti, S; Zhong, L; Bergqwist, P; Chamberlin, S; Hoagland, V; Ju, W D 2000. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of indinavir in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma among adults with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 68 4, 367-74

Pastey, M K; Gower, T L; Spearman, P W; Crowe, J E; Graham, B S 2000. A RhoA-derived peptide inhibits syncytium formation induced by respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3. Nature medicine, 6 1, 35-40

Sandefur, S; Smith, R M; Varthakavi, V; Spearman, P 2000. Mapping and characterization of the N-terminal I domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Pr55(Gag). Journal of virology, 74 16, 7238-49

Tang, Y W; Huong, J T; Lloyd, R M; Spearman, P; Haas, D W 2000. Comparison of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA sequence heterogeneity in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Journal of clinical microbiology, 38 12, 4637-9

Fang, Z Y; Kuli-Zade, I; Spearman, P 1999. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV)-1 Gag-Env pseudovirion formation elicited from mammalian cells by a canarypox HIV vaccine candidate. The Journal of infectious diseases, 180 4, 1122-32

Gicheru, M M; Otsyula, M; Spearman, P; Graham, B S; Miller, C J; Robinson, H L; Haigwood, N L; Montefiori, D C 1999. Neutralizing antibody responses in Africa green monkeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm). Journal of medical primatology, 28 3, 97-104

Varthakavi, V; Browning, P J; Spearman, P 1999. Human immunodeficiency virus replication in a primary effusion lymphoma cell line stimulates lytic-phase replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Journal of virology, 73 12, 10329-38

Wang, J J; Horton, R; Varthakavi, V; Spearman, P; Ratner, L 1999. Formation and release of virus-like particles by HIV-1 matrix protein. AIDS (London, England), 13 2, 281-3

Boyce, T G; Spearman, P 1998. Acute aseptic meningitis secondary to intravenous immunoglobulin in a patient with Kawasaki syndrome. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 17 11, 1054-6

Sandefur, S; Varthakavi, V; Spearman, P 1998. The I domain is required for efficient plasma membrane binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Pr55Gag. Journal of virology, 72 4, 2723-32

Spearman, P; Horton, R; Ratner, L; Kuli-Zade, I 1997. Membrane binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein in vivo supports a conformational myristyl switch mechanism. Journal of virology, 71 9, 6582-92

Spring, M; Spearman, P 1997. Dracunculiasis: report of an imported case in the United States. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 25 3, 749-50

Spearman, P; Lakey, D; Jotte, S; Chernowitz, A; Claycomb, S; Stratton, C 1996. Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis with small-colony variant Staphylococcus aureus. Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 26 1, 13-5

Spearman, P; Ratner, L 1996. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid formation in reticulocyte lysates. Journal of virology, 70 11, 8187-94

Horton, R; Spearman, P; Ratner, L 1994. HIV-2 viral protein X association with the GAG p27 capsid protein. Virology, 199 2, 453-7

Spearman, P; Wang, J J; Vander Heyden, N; Ratner, L 1994. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein domains essential to membrane binding and particle assembly. Journal of virology, 68 5, 3232-42

Lu, Y L; Spearman, P; Ratner, L 1993. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R localization in infected cells and virions. Journal of virology, 67 11, 6542-50

Spearman, P; Leier, C V 1990. Persistent left superior vena cava: unusual wave contour of left jugular vein as the presenting feature. American heart journal, 120 4, 999-1002

Spearman, P W; Barson, W J . Toxic shock syndrome occurring in children with abrasive injuries beneath casts. Journal of pediatric orthopedics, 12 2, 169-72

Suara, R; Whitlock, J; Spearman, P . Mycobacteria fortuitum central venous catheter-related bacteremia in an infant with renal sarcoma. Pediatric hematology and oncology, 18 5, 363-5