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Department of

Family and Community Medicine

Photo of  Anthony Leonard, PhD

Anthony Leonard, PhD

Research Associate Professor of Family and Community Medicine; Biostatistician

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor of Arts: Albion College
  • PhD: University of Cincinnati
  • Graduate studies: Miami University Oxford

Contact Information
  • Medical Sciences Building
  • 231 Albert Sabin Way
  • MSB 4355C
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45206-2839
  • Office (513) 558-6938
  • Fax (513) 558-2366
  • Email anthony.leonard@uc.edu

Peer Reviewed Publications

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Eckman, Mark H; Costea, Alexandru; Attari, Mehran; Munjal, Jitender; Wise, Ruth E; Knochelmann, Carol; Flaherty, Matthew L; Baker, Pete; Ireton, Robert; Harnett, Brett M; Leonard, Anthony C; Steen, Dylan; Rose, Adam; Kues, John 2018. Shared decision-making tool for thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation - A feasibility study. American heart journal, 199 , 13-21

Lee, Timmy; Shah, Silvi; Leonard, Anthony C; Parikh, Pratik; Thakar, Charuhas V 2018. Acute Kidney Injury before Dialysis Initiation Predicts Adverse Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients. American journal of nephrology, 47 6, 427-434

Shah, Silvi; Leonard, Anthony C; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Christianson, Annette L; Thakar, Charuhas V 2018. Gender and Racial Disparities in Initial Hemodialysis Access and Outcomes in Incident End-Stage Renal Disease Patients. American journal of nephrology, 48 1, 4-14

Shah, Silvi; Leonard, Anthony C; Thakar, Charuhas V 2018. Functional status, pre-dialysis health and clinical outcomes among elderly dialysis patients. BMC nephrology, 19 1, 100

Abu Jawdeh, Bassam G; Leonard, Anthony C; Sharma, Yuvraj; Katipally, Swapna; Shields, Adele R; Alloway, Rita R; Woodle, E Steve; Thakar, Charuhas V 2017. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Single Center Experience. Frontiers in medicine, 4 , 64

Eckman, Mark H; Costea, Alexandru; Attari, Mehran; Munjal, Jitender; Wise, Ruth E; Knochelmann, Carol; Flaherty, Matthew L; Baker, Pete; Ireton, Robert; Harnett, Brett M; Leonard, Anthony C; Steen, Dylan; Rose, Adam; Kues, John 2017. Atrial fibrillation decision support tool: Population perspective. American heart journal, 194 , 49-60

Elder NC, Imhoff R, Chubinski J, Jacobson CJ, Pallerla H, Saric P, Rotenberg V, Vonder Meulen MB, Leonard AC, Carrozza M, Regan S 2017. Congruence of patient self-rating of health with physician ratings in family medicine offices J Am B Fam Med, 30, 196-204

Schauer DP et.al., incl. Leonard AC 2017. Association Between Weight Loss and the Risk of Cancer after Bariatric Surgery Obesity , 25 , S52-S57

Schauer, Daniel P; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Koebnick, Corinna; Caan, Bette; Weinmann, Sheila; Leonard, Anthony C; Powers, J David; Yenumula, Panduranga R; Arterburn, David E 2017. Bariatric Surgery and the Risk of Cancer in a Large Multisite Cohort. Annals of surgery, ,

Schauer, Daniel P; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Koebnick, Corinna; Caan, Bette; Weinmann, Sheila; Leonard, Anthony C; Powers, J David; Yenumula, Panduranga R; Arterburn, David E 2017. Association Between Weight Loss and the Risk of Cancer after Bariatric Surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 25 Suppl 2 , S52-S57

Eckman M, et al incl. Leonard AC 2016. Using an Atrial Fibrillation Decision Support Tool (AFDST) for Thromboprophylaxis in Atrial Fibrillation: Impact of Gender and Age Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64 , 1054-1060

Eckman, Mark H; Lip, Gregory Y H; Wise, Ruth E; Speer, Barbara; Sullivan, Megan; Walker, Nita; Kissela, Brett; Flaherty, Matthew L; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Baker, Peter; Ireton, Robert; Hoskins, Dave; Harnett, Brett M; Aguilar, Carlos; Leonard, Anthony C; Arduser, Lora; Steen, Dylan; Costea, Alexandru; Kues, John 2016. Impact of an Atrial Fibrillation Decision Support Tool on thromboprophylaxis for atrial fibrillation. American heart journal, 176 , 17-27

Bragg EJ; Warshaw GA; Van der Willik O; Meganathan K; Weber D; Cornwall D; Leonard AC 2011. Paul B. Beeson career development awards in aging research and u.s. Medical schools aging and geriatric medicine programs. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59 9, 1730-8

Chambers PL; Mahabee-Gittens E; Leonard AC 2011. Vulnerable child syndrome, parental perception of child vulnerability, and emergency department usage. Pediatric emergency care, 27 11, 1009-13

Eckman MH; Wise R; Leonard AC; Dixon E; Burrows C; Khan F; Warm E 2011. Impact of health literacy on outcomes and effectiveness of an educational intervention in patients with chronic diseases. Patient education and counseling, ,

Thakar CV; Christianson A; Himmelfarb J; Leonard AC 2011. Acute kidney injury episodes and chronic kidney disease risk in diabetes mellitus. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 6 11, 2567-72

Thompson JR; Leonard AC; Doarn CR; Roesch MJ; Broderick TJ 2011. Limited value of haptics in virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training. Surgical endoscopy, 25 4, 1107-14

Widdice LE; Bernstein D; Leonard AC; Marsolo KA; Kahn JA 2011. Adherence to the HPV vaccine dosing intervals and factors associated with completion of 3 doses. Pediatrics, 127 1, 77-84

Wilson SE; Talaska G; Kahn RS; Schumann B; Khoury J; Leonard AC; Lanphear BP 2011. White blood cell DNA adducts in a cohort of asthmatic children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 84 1, 19-27

Khanna D; Frech T; Khanna PP; Kaplan RM; Eckman MH; Hays RD; Ginsburg SS; Leonard AC; Tsevat J 2010. Valuation of scleroderma and psoriatic arthritis health states by the general public. Health and quality of life outcomes, 8 , 112

Seaman J; Leonard AC; Panos RJ 2010. Health care utilization history, GOLD guidelines, and respiratory medication prescriptions in patients with COPD. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 , 89-97

Szaflarski M; Kudel I; Cotton S; Leonard AC; Tsevat J; Ritchey PN 2010. Multidimensional Assessment of Spirituality/Religion in Patients with HIV: Conceptual Framework and Empirical Refinement. Journal of religion and health, ,

Thakar CV; Quate-Operacz M; Leonard AC; Eckman MH 2010. Outcomes of hemodialysis patients in a long-term care hospital setting: a single-center study. American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 55 2, 300-6

Trevino KM; Pargament KI; Cotton S; Leonard AC; Hahn J; Caprini-Faigin CA; Tsevat J 2010. Religious coping and physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. AIDS and behavior, 14 2, 379-89

Widdice LE; Breland DJ; Jonte J; Farhat S; Ma Y; Leonard AC; Moscicki AB 2010. Human papillomavirus concordance in heterosexual couples. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 47 2, 151-9

Wilson SE; Baker ER; Leonard AC; Eckman MH; Lanphear BP 2010. Understanding preferences for disclosure of individual biomarker results among participants in a longitudinal birth cohort. Journal of medical ethics, 36 12, 736-40

Butt AA; Tsevat J; Leonard AC; Shaikh O; McMahon D; Khan UA; Dorey-Stein Z; Lo Re V 2009. Effect of race and HIV co-infection upon treatment prescription for hepatitis C virus. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 13 4, 449-55

Leesar MA; Varma J; Shapira A; Fahsah I; Raza ST; Elghoul Z; Leonard AC; Meganathan K; Ikram S 2009. Prediction of hypertension improvement after stenting of renal artery stenosis: comparative accuracy of translesional pressure gradients, intravascular ultrasound, and angiography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 53 25, 2363-71

Tsevat J; Leonard AC; Szaflarski M; Sherman SN; Cotton S; Mrus JM; Feinberg J 2009. Change in quality of life after being diagnosed with HIV: a multicenter longitudinal study. AIDS patient care and STDs, 23 11, 931-7

Mahabee-Gittens EM; Gordon JS; Krugh ME; Henry B; Leonard AC 2008. A smoking cessation intervention plus proactive quitline referral in the pediatric emergency department: a pilot study. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 10 12, 1745-51

Schauer DP; Leonard AC; Hornung RW; Johnston JA; Eckman MH 2008. Patient-specific decision modeling to guide the use of drotrecogin alpha (activated) in patients with severe sepsis. Journal of critical care, 23 4, 484-92

Horner RD; Leonard AC 2007. Factors associated with a provider's recommendation of carotid endarterectomy: implications for understanding disparities in the use of invasive procedures. Journal of vascular surgery : official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter, 45 1, 124-9

Thakar CV; Kharat V; Blanck S; Leonard AC 2007. Acute kidney injury after gastric bypass surgery. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 2 3, 426-30

Warner BB; Ryan AL; Seeger K; Leonard AC; Erwin CR; Warner BW 2007. Ontogeny of salivary epidermal growth factor and necrotizing enterocolitis. The Journal of pediatrics, 150 4, 358-63

Cotton S; Puchalski CM; Sherman SN; Mrus JM; Peterman AH; Feinberg J; Pargament KI; Justice AC; Leonard AC; Tsevat J 2006. Spirituality and religion in patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of general internal medicine, 21 Suppl 5 , S5-13

Cotton S; Tsevat J; Szaflarski M; Kudel I; Feinberg J; Leonard AC; Holmes WC 2006. Changes in religiousness and spirituality attributed to HIV/AIDS: are there sex and race differences? Journal of general internal medicine, 21 Suppl 5 , S14-20

Kudel I; Farber SL; Mrus JM; Leonard AC; Sherman SN; Tsevat J 2006. Patterns of responses on health-related quality of life questionnaires among patients with HIV/AIDS. Journal of general internal medicine, 21 Suppl 5 , S48-55

Mrus JM; Leonard AC; Yi MS; Sherman SN; Fultz SL; Justice AC; Tsevat J 2006. Health-related quality of life in veterans and nonveterans with HIV/AIDS. Journal of general internal medicine, 21 Suppl 5 , S39-47

Mrus JM; Sherman KE; Leonard AC; Sherman SN; Mandell KL; Tsevat J 2006. Health values of patients coinfected with HIV/hepatitis C: are two viruses worse than one? Medical care, 44 2, 158-66

Szaflarski M; Ritchey PN; Leonard AC; Mrus JM; Peterman AH; Ellison CG; McCullough ME; Tsevat J 2006. Modeling the effects of spirituality/religion on patients' perceptions of living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of general internal medicine, 21 Suppl 5 , S28-38

Luckhaupt SE; Chin MH; Mangione CM; Phillips RS; Bell D; Leonard AC; Tsevat J 2005. Mentorship in academic general internal medicine. Results of a survey of mentors. Journal of general internal medicine, 20 11, 1014-8

Page SJ; Levine P; Leonard AC 2005. Effects of mental practice on affected limb use and function in chronic stroke. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 86 3, 399-402

Page SJ; Levine P; Leonard AC 2005. Modified constraint-induced therapy in acute stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 19 1, 27-32

Silbiger RN; Leonard AC; Dimsoski P; Foré S; Guttman SI; Roth AC; Gordon DA; Wessendarp T; Toth GP; Smith MK 2001. Use of molecular markers to study the effects of environmental impacts on genetic diversity in brown bullhead (Ameirus nebulosus) populations. Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC, 20 11, 2580-7

Leonard, A C; Franson, S E; Hertzberg, V S; Smith, M K; Toth, G P 1999. Hypothesis testing with the similarity index. Molecular ecology, 8 12, 2105-14

Green BL; Grace MC; Vary MG; Kramer TL; Gleser GC; Leonard AC 1994. Children of disaster in the second decade: a 17-year follow-up of Buffalo Creek survivors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33 1, 71-9

Kramer TL; Lindy JD; Green BL; Grace MC; Leonard AC 1994. The comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidality in Vietnam veterans. Suicide & life-threatening behavior, 24 1, 58-67

Green BL; Lindy JD; Grace MC; Leonard AC 1992. Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder and diagnostic comorbidity in a disaster sample The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 180 12, 760-6

Green BL; Korol M; Grace MC; Vary MG; Leonard AC; Gleser GC; Smitson-Cohen S 1991. Children and disaster: age, gender, and parental effects on PTSD symptoms Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30 6, 945-51

Green BL; Lindy JD; Grace MC; Gleser GC; Leonard AC; Korol M; Winget C 1990. Buffalo Creek survivors in the second decade: stability of stress symptoms The American journal of orthopsychiatry, 60 1, 43-54

Leonard A; Rousseau J; Thakar C 12-19-2012. Timing of dialysis initiation in AKI in ICU: International survey Critical Care, 16 6,

Gleser G; Grace M; Green B; Leonard A; Lindy J 12-01-1990. Risk factors for PTSD and other diagnoses in a general sample of vietnam veterans American Journal of Psychiatry, 147 6, 729-733

Leonard AC; Nashel D; Schechter S; Trout H 12-01-1983. Enteroprosthetic fistula associated with hypertrophic osteoarthropathy Vascular Surgery, 17 6, 348-353

Derbes S; Leonard AC; Michaels R; Nashel D; Sliwinski A 09-24-1982. Weekly intravenous methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis and Rheumatism, 25 3, 339-341

Cotton S; Grossoehme D; Leonard AC 09-01-2007. Spiritual and religious experiences of adolescent psychiatric inpatients versus healthy peers. The journal of pastoral care & counseling : JPCC, 61 3, 197-204

Guccion J; Katz A; Leonard AC; Mann D; Nashel D; Sliwinski A 08-09-1982. Ankylosing spondylitis and systemic lupus erythematosus. A rare HLA combination Archives of Internal Medicine, 142 6, 1227-1228

Leonard A; Thakar C 07-01-2013. Prophylactic administration of bicarbonate to reduce the risk of postcardiac surgery acute kidney in Critical Care Medicine, 41 7, 1802-1803

Dunning K; Hermann V; Leonard A; Levine P; Page S 07-01-2011. Longer versus shorter mental practice sessions for affected upper extremity movement after stroke: A Clinical Rehabilitation, 25 7, 627-637

Grace M; Green B; Leonard A; Lindy J 07-01-1990. Race differences in response to combat stress Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3 3, 379-393

Aguilar C; Arduser L; Baker P; Costea A; Eckman M; Flaherty M; Harnett B; Hoskins D; Ireton R; Kissela B; Kleindorfer D; Kues J; Leonard A; Lip G; Speer B; Steen D; Sullivan M; Walker N; Wise R 06-01-2016. Impact of an Atrial Fibrillation Decision Support Tool on thromboprophylaxis for atrial fibrillation American Heart Journal, 176 , 17-27

Embi P; Leonard A 06-01-2012. Evaluating alert fatigue over time to EHR-based clinical trial alerts: Findings from a randomized co Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 19 E1, e145-e148

Ahmed M; Ginsburg S; Khanna D; Leonard A; Park G; Tsevat J; Yontz D 06-01-2008. The disutility of chronic gout Quality of Life Research, 17 5, 815-822

Cotton S; Leonard A; Luberto C; Tsevat J; Yi M 05-01-2012. Complementary and alternative medicine use and psychosocial outcomes among urban adolescents with as Journal of Asthma, 49 4, 409-415

Leonard AC; Levine P; Page S 04-01-2007. Mental practice in chronic stroke: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial Stroke, 38 4, 1293-1297

Kissela B; Leonard A; Levine P; Page S; Szaflarski J 03-01-2008. Modified constraint-induced therapy in chronic stroke: Results of a single-blinded randomized contro Physical Therapy, 88 3, 333-340

Eckman M; Leonard AC; Moomaw C; Schneeweiss S; Wilson S 03-01-2005. Underuse of controller medications among children with persistent asthma in the Ohio Medicaid popula Ambulatory Pediatrics, 5 2, 83-89

Aguilar C; Arduser L; Baker P; Costea A; Eckman M; Flaherty M; Harnett B; Hoskins D; Ireton R; Khan F; Kissela B; Kleindorfer D; Kues J; Leonard A; Lip G; Prakash R; Speer B; Sullivan M; Walker N; Wise R 01-01-2014. Integrating real-time clinical information to provide estimates of net clinical benefit of antithrom Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 7 5, 680-686

Cotton S; Feinberg J; Justice A; Leonard A; Mrus J; Pargament K; Peterson A; Puchalski C; Sherman S; Tsevat J 01-01-2009. Erratum: Spirituality and religion in patients with HIV/AIDS (Journal of General Internal Medicine 2 Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24 8, 994

Azais I.; Bauters F.; Bernard J.; Courouble Y.; Daragon A.; De Gramont A.; Delannoy A.; Duclos B.; Eulier-Ziegler L.; Facon T.; Grosbois B.; Jouet J.; Kaplan G.; Laporte J.; Leonard A.; Menard J.; Michaux J.; Mineur P.; Monconduit M. 01-01-1995. Prognostic factors in low tumour mass asymptomatic multiple myeloma: A report on 91 patients American Journal of Hematology, 48 2, 71-75

Khanna D; Kaplan RM; Eckman MH; Hays RD; Leonard AC; Ginsburg SS; Tsevat J . A randomized study of scleroderma health state values: a picture is worth a thousand words, and quite a few utiles. [corrected]. Medical decision making : an international journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making, 29 1, 7-14

Published Abstracts

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Eckman M, et al incl. Leonard AC 2016. Using an Atrial Fibrillation Decision Support Tool (AFDST) for Thromboprophylaxis in Atrial Fibrillation: Impact of Gender and Age Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, ,


Eckman M, et al incl. Leonard AC 2016. . Impact of an Atrial Fibrillation Decision Support Tool (AFDST) on Thromboprophy-laxis for Atrial Fibrillation American Heart Journal, 176 , 17-27


Eckman MH, et. al. incl. Leonard AC. 2014. Integrating Real-Time Clinical Information to Provide Estimates of Net Clinical Benefit of Antithrombotic Therapy for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 2014 7, 680-686


Mrus JM, Yi MS, Leonard AC, Sherman SN, Justice AC, Puchalski CM, Tsevat J. Multi-center study of utilities in patients with HIV/AIDS in the era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Med Decis Making 2003; 23:568 2003. , ,


Schauer DP, Johnston JA, Hornung RW, Leonard A, Eckman MH. “Patient-Specific Decision Modeling to Guide the Use of Drotrecogin Alfa (Activated) in the Treatment of Severe Sepsis” Medical Decision Making, Nov-Dec 2003; 23(6): 560 2003. , ,


Green BL, et al incl. Leonard AC. Traumatic Events Over the Lifespan: Survivors of the Buffalo Creek Disaster. In Miller, T., Stressful Life Events, 1997, International Universities Press: Madison, CT 1997. , ,


Green BL, Gleser GC, Lindy JD, Grace MC, Leonard AC. Age-related Reactions to the Buffalo Creek Dam Collapse: Second Decade Effects. In Ruskin PE, Talbott JA (Eds.), Aging and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 1996, American Psychiatric Press: Washington, D.C. 1996. , ,