Research/Clinical Interests:

  • (1) Antidepressant Risks: We have shown that third-trimester-equivalent exposure to an SSRI causes learning deficits in rat offspring and reductions in serotonin.  New clinical evidence indicates that prenatal SSRI exposure increases the risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).  In new studies, we are testing social, emotional, and cognitive functions.  We are also collaborating with Dr. Steve Danzer.  He developed a mouse in which the tumor suppressor gene, Pten, is deleted in the hippocampus.  These KO mice show a phenotype consistent with ASD.
    (2) Attention Deficit: ADHD affects 9.5% of school age children.  Concordance among monozygotic twins is 80%, and 30% among dizygotic twins.  Studies have identified the Latrophilin-3 (LPHN3) gene with ADHD.  Recently, it was found that Flrt3 binds to the extracellular domain of Lphn3.  We have an Lphn3 KO rat that shows hyperactivity, hyper-reactivity, and impaired sensorimotor gating.  We are determining if Lphn3 KO rats show inattention and impulsivity, and whether medications reverse these effects.
    (3) Traffic-Related Air Pollution (TRAP): Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) are a major source of air pollution.  Particulate matter (PM) <2.5 microns (PM2.5 enter the airway, cross membranes, and migrate to other organs, including the brain.  Children exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit reduced intellectual function and increased  brain inflammatory and reactive oxygen products.  With Dr. Tim LeCras, who developed a mouse model of allergen + DEP exposure, we are evaluating cognitive development in parallel with studies in children using parallel tests.
    (4) Brain Creatine: Creatine is converted in mitochondria to phosphocreatine.  Phosphocreatine donates its high energy phosphate to ADP to replenish ATP.  Dr. Ton deGrauw described a new disorder in which the creatine transporter (CrT) is mutated (Creatine Transporter Disorder  or CTD).  CTD children show severe intellectual impairment, loss of language, epilepsy, and abnormal behavior.  Drs. Matt Skelton, Joe Clark, Michael Williams, and I developed a floxed CrT mouse.  When crossed to a CMV-Cre line, a global CrT deletion is created that have severe cognitive deficits.  When bred to Nestin-Cre mice, CrT is deleted only in neurons and also show a severe cognitive deficits.  We are investigating blood brain barrier sites where the transporter is localized.  We are testing whether administering creatine into the brain restores function; we are exploring creatine analogues that might cross the blood brain barrier and mimic creatine to rescue the phenotype.  We are determining if there is a critical period for brain creatine during development.
    (5) New Antidepressants: Despite success, up to 50% of patients do not benefit or benefit incompletely from these medications.  No new antidepressant has been developed in 25 years.  We created a KO mouse of phosphodiesterase-1B (Pde1b).  PDEs hydrolyze cAMP and cGMP.  PDE4 inhibitors were effective antidepressants but had adverse side-effects.  Pde1b KO mice have an antidepressant phenotype.  We are working with a company that has a Pde1 agonist.  The drug has antidepressant activity in WT mice but not in KO mice.
    (6) Developmental Stress: There are methods for inducing chronic stress in adult rodents, but Inducing stress during development is more difficult.  Maternal separation is common, although findings are inconsistent.  A newer approach is to raise animals in barren cages (with minimal bedding, singly, and with no enrichment).  We are using this to determine long-term effects.

    Education/Credentials:

  • Master's Degree: Vanderbilt University
  • Doctoral Degree: Vanderbilt University

Peer Reviewed Publications (in chronological order):

  • Chen, Y., Curran, C. P., Nebert, D. W., Patel, K. V., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). Effect of vitamin C deficiency during postnatal development on adult behavior: functional phenotype of Gulo(-/-) knockout mice. . Genes, Brain, and Behavior.
  • Hemmerle, A. M., Dickerson, J. W., Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Vorhees, C. V., Williams, M. T., & Seroogy, K. B. (2012). (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstacy") treatment modulates expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in multiple regions of adult rat brain. . The Journal of Comparative Neurology.
  • Chen, Y., Curran, C. P., Nebert, D. W., Patel, K. V., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). Effect of vitamin C deficiency during postnatal development on adult behavior: functional phenotype of Gulo(-/-) knockout mice. . Genes, Brain, and Behavior.
  • Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Herring, N. R., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). Effects of neonatal methamphetamine treatment on adult stress-induced corticosterone release in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 34 (1) , 136-42.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Graham, D. L., Braun, A. A., Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Richtand, N. M., & Williams, M. T. (2012). Prenatal immune challenge in rats: Altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to poly IC. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 66 (8) , 725-37.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Braun, A. A., Amos-Kroohs, R. M., Williams, M. T., Ostertag, E., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). A new model of Pde4d deficiency: genetic knock-down of PDE4D enzyme in rats produces an antidepressant phenotype without spatial cognitive effects. . Genes, Brain, and Behavior , 11 (5) , 614-22.
  • Chen, Y., Curran, C. P., Nebert, D. W., Patel, K. V., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). Effect of vitamin C deficiency during postnatal development on adult behavior: functional phenotype of Gulo(-/-) knockout mice. . Genes, Brain, and Behavior , 11 (4) , 500.
  • Chen, Y., Curran, C. P., Nebert, D. W., Patel, K. V., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). Effect of chronic glutathione deficiency on the behavioral phenotype of Gclm(-/-) knockout mice. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 34 (4) , 450-457.
  • Braun, A. A., Graham, D. L., Schaefer, T. L., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2012). Dorsal striatal dopamine depletion impairs both allocentric and egocentric navigation in rats. . Neurobiology of Learning and Memory , 97 (4) , 402-8.
  • Graham, D. L., Amos-Kroohs, R. M., Braun, A. A., Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2012). Neonatal (+)-methamphetamine exposure in rats alters adult locomotor responses to dopamine D1 and D2 agonists and to a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, but not to serotonin agonists. . The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology / Official Scientific Journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) , 1-15.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Grace, C. E., Skelton, M. R., Graham, D. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2012). Neonatal citalopram treatment inhibits the 5-HT depleting effects of MDMA exposure in rats. . ACS Chemical Neuroscience , 3 (1) , 12-21.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Morford, L. R., Graham, D. L., Skelton, M. R., & Williams, M. T. (2011). Effects of periadolescent fluoxetine and paroxetine on elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle, and swimming immobility in rats while on and off-drug. . Behavioral and Brain Functions : BBF , 7 , 41.
  • Amos-Kroohs, R. M., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2011). Neonatal methylphenidate does not impair adult spatial learning in the Morris water maze in rats. . Neuroscience Letters , 502 (3) , 152-6.
  • Curran, C. P., Nebert, D. W., Genter, M. B., Patel, K. V., Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2011). In utero and lactational exposure to PCBs in mice: adult offspring show altered learning and memory depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. . Environmental Health Perspectives , 119 (9) , 1286-93.
  • Skelton, M. R., Graham, D. L., Schaefer, T. L., Grace, C. E., Braun, A. A., Burns, L. N., Amos-Kroohs, R. M., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2011). Distinct periods of developmental sensitivity to the effects of 3,4-(±)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behaviour and monoamines in rats. . The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology / Official Scientific Journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP) , 1-14.
  • Braun, A. A., Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Hemmerle, A. M., Dickerson, J. W., Seroogy, K. B., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2011). Neurotoxic (+)-methamphetamine treatment in rats increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin receptor kinase B expression in multiple brain regions. . Neuroscience , 184 , 164-71.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Lingrel, J. B., Moseley, A. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2011). Targeted mutations in the Na,K-ATPase alpha 2 isoform confer ouabain resistance and result in abnormal behavior in mice. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 65 (6) , 520-31.
  • Vorhees, C. V., He, E., Skelton, M. R., Graham, D. L., Schaefer, T. L., Grace, C. E., Braun, A. A., Amos-Kroohs, R., & Williams, M. T. (2011). Comparison of (+)-methamphetamine, ±-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, (+)-amphetamine and ±-fenfluramine in rats on egocentric learning in the Cincinnati water maze. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 65 (5) , 368-78.
  • Graham, D. L., Grace, C. E., Braun, A. A., Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Tang, P. H., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2011). Effects of developmental stress and lead (Pb) on corticosterone after chronic and acute stress, brain monoamines, and blood Pb levels in rats. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 29 (1) , 45-55.
  • Skelton, M. R., Schaefer, T. L., Graham, D. L., Degrauw, T. J., Clark, J. F., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2011). Creatine transporter (CrT; Slc6a8) knockout mice as a model of human CrT deficiency. . PloS One , 6 (1) , e16187.
  • Braun, A. A., Skelton, M. R., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2011). Comparison of the elevated plus and elevated zero mazes in treated and untreated male Sprague-Dawley rats: effects of anxiolytic and anxiogenic agents. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 97 (3) , 406-15.
  • Curran, C. P., Vorhees, C. V., Williams, M. T., Genter, M. B., Miller, M. L., & Nebert, D. W. (2011). In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. . Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology , 119 (1) , 189-208.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Grace, C. E., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2010). Effects on plasma corticosterone levels and brain serotonin from interference with methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release in neonatal rats. . Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) , 13 (6) , 469-80.
  • Herring, N. R., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2010). (+)-Methamphetamine-induced monoamine reductions and impaired egocentric learning in adrenalectomized rats is independent of hyperthermia. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 64 (10) , 773-85.
  • Zhu, H., Mingler, M. K., McBride, M. L., Murphy, A. J., Valenzuela, D. M., Yancopoulos, G. D., Williams, M. T., Vorhees, C. V., & Rothenberg, M. E. (2010). Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1. . Psychoneuroendocrinology , 35 (8) , 1119-32.
  • Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Graham, D. L., Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2010). Effects of inhibiting neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release in rats by adrenal autotransplantation on later learning, memory, and plasma corticosterone levels. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 28 (4) , 331-42.
  • Sun, Y., Liou, B., Ran, H., Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., Vorhees, C. V., Kitatani, K., Hannun, Y. A., Witte, D. P., Xu, Y., & Grabowski, G. A. (2010). Neuronopathic Gaucher disease in the mouse: viable combined selective saposin C deficiency and mutant glucocerebrosidase (V394L) mice with glucosylsphingosine and glucosylceramide accumulation and progressive neurological deficits. . Human Molecular Genetics , 19 (6) , 1088-97.
  • Sun, Y., Ran, H., Zamzow, M., Kitatani, K., Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., Vorhees, C. V., Witte, D. P., Hannun, Y. A., & Grabowski, G. A. (2010). Specific saposin C deficiency: CNS impairment and acid beta-glucosidase effects in the mouse. . Human Molecular Genetics , 19 (4) , 634-47.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2009). Mouse plasmacytoma-expressed transcript 1 knock out induced 5-HT disruption results in a lack of cognitive deficits and an anxiety phenotype complicated by hypoactivity and defensiveness. . Neuroscience , 164 (4) , 1431-43.
  • McAuliffe, J. J., Loepke, A. W., Miles, L., Joseph, B., Hughes, E., & Vorhees, C. V. (2009). Desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane provide limited neuroprotection against neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in a delayed preconditioning paradigm. . Anesthesiology , 111 (3) , 533-46.
  • Skelton, M. R., Schaefer, T. L., Herring, N. R., Grace, C. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2009). Comparison of the developmental effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (Foxy) to (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) in rats. . Psychopharmacology , 204 (2) , 287-97.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Skelton, M. R., Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Graham, D. L., Braun, A. A., & Williams, M. T. (2009). Effects of (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning, but not locomotor activity or acoustic startle, align with the stress hyporesponsive period in rats. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 27 (3) , 289-98.
  • Loepke, A. W., Istaphanous, G. K., McAuliffe, J. J., Miles, L., Hughes, E. A., McCann, J. C., Harlow, K. E., Kurth, C. D., Williams, M. T., Vorhees, C. V., & Danzer, S. C. (2009). The effects of neonatal isoflurane exposure in mice on brain cell viability, adult behavior, learning, and memory. . Anesthesia and Analgesia , 108 (1) , 90-104.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Grace, C. E., Herring, N. R., & Williams, M. T. (2009). (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dose-dependently impairs spatial learning in the morris water maze after exposure of rats to different five-day intervals from birth to postnatal day twenty. . Developmental Neuroscience , 31 (1-2) , 107-20.
  • Skelton, M. R., Able, J. A., Grace, C. E., Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2008). (+/-)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine treatment in adult rats impairs path integration learning: a comparison of single vs once per week treatment for 5 weeks. . Neuropharmacology , 55 (7) , 1121-30.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Grace, C. E., Skelton, M. R., Johnson, H. L., & Williams, M. T. (2008). Effects of neonatal (+)-methamphetamine on path integration and spatial learning in rats: effects of dose and rearing conditions. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 26 (6) , 599-610.
  • Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2008). Effect of +-methamphetamine on path integration learning, novel object recognition, and neurotoxicity in rats. . Psychopharmacology , 199 (4) , 637-50.
  • Sun, Y., Jia, L., Williams, M. T., Zamzow, M., Ran, H., Quinn, B., Aronow, B. J., Vorhees, C. V., Witte, D. P., & Grabowski, G. A. (2008). Temporal gene expression profiling reveals CEBPD as a candidate regulator of brain disease in prosaposin deficient mice. . BMC Neuroscience , 9 , 76.
  • Sun, Y., Witte, D. P., Ran, H., Zamzow, M., Barnes, S., Cheng, H., Han, X., Williams, M. T., Skelton, M. R., Vorhees, C. V., & Grabowski, G. A. (2008). Neurological deficits and glycosphingolipid accumulation in saposin B deficient mice. . Human Molecular Genetics , 17 (15) , 2345-56.
  • Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Tang, P. H., Skelton, M. R., Lucot, J. P., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2008). Comparison of time-dependent effects of (+)-methamphetamine or forced swim on monoamines, corticosterone, glucose, creatine, and creatinine in rats. . BMC Neuroscience , 9 , 49.
  • Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2008). Developmental effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: a review. . Behavioural Pharmacology , 19 (2) , 91-111.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Herring, N. R., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2008). Short- and long-term effects of (+)-methamphetamine and (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on monoamine and corticosterone levels in the neonatal rat following multiple days of treatment. . Journal of Neurochemistry , 104 (6) , 1674-85.
  • Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Herring, N. R., Skelton, M. R., McCrea, A. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2008). (+)-Methamphetamine increases corticosterone in plasma and BDNF in brain more than forced swim or isolation in neonatal rats. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 62 (2) , 110-21.
  • McAuliffe, J. J., Joseph, B., Hughes, E., Miles, L., & Vorhees, C. V. (2008). Metallothionein I,II deficient mice do not exhibit significantly worse long-term behavioral outcomes following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia: MT-I,II deficient mice have inherent behavioral impairments. . Brain Research , 1190 , 175-85.
  • Pan, D., Sciascia, A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2008). Progression of multiple behavioral deficits with various ages of onset in a murine model of Hurler syndrome. . Brain Research , 1188 , 241-53.
  • Lingrel, J. B., Williams, M. T., Vorhees, C. V., & Moseley, A. E. (2007). Na,K-ATPase and the role of alpha isoforms in behavior. . Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes , 39 (5-6) , 385-9.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Skelton, M. R., & Williams, M. T. (2007). Age-dependent effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure on spatial learning. . Behavioural Pharmacology , 18 (5-6) , 549-62.
  • Siuciak, J. A., McCarthy, S. A., Chapin, D. S., Reed, T. M., Vorhees, C. V., & Repaske, D. R. (2007). Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of mice deficient in the phosphodiesterase-1B (PDE1B) enzyme. . Neuropharmacology , 53 (1) , 113-24.
  • Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., Schaefer, T. L., & Vorhees, C. V. (2007). Neonatal (+)-methamphetamine increases brain derived neurotrophic factor, but not nerve growth factor, during treatment and results in long-term spatial learning deficits. . Psychoneuroendocrinology , 32 (6) , 734-45.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schaefer, T. L., & Williams, M. T. (2007). Developmental effects of +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on spatial versus path integration learning: effects of dose distribution. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 61 (7) , 488-99.
  • Williams, M. T., Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Skelton, M. R., Campbell, N. G., Lipton, J. W., McCrea, A. E., & Vorhees, C. V. (2007). Alterations in body temperature, corticosterone, and behavior following the administration of 5-methoxy-diisopropyltryptamine ('foxy') to adult rats: a new drug of abuse. . Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology , 32 (6) , 1404-20.
  • McAuliffe, J. J., Joseph, B., & Vorhees, C. V. (2007). Isoflurane-delayed preconditioning reduces immediate mortality and improves striatal function in adult mice after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. . Anesthesia and Analgesia , 104 (5) , 1066-77, tables of c.
  • Moseley, A. E., Williams, M. T., Schaefer, T. L., Bohanan, C. S., Neumann, J. C., Behbehani, M. M., Vorhees, C. V., & Lingrel, J. B. (2007). Deficiency in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform genes alters spatial learning, motor activity, and anxiety in mice. . The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience , 27 (3) , 616-26.
  • Skelton, M. R., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2006). Treatment with MDMA from P11-20 disrupts spatial learning and path integration learning in adolescent rats but only spatial learning in older rats. . Psychopharmacology , 189 (3) , 307-18.
  • McAuliffe, J. J., Miles, L., & Vorhees, C. V. (2006). Adult neurological function following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in a mouse model of the term neonate: water maze performance is dependent on separable cognitive and motor components. . Brain Research , 1118 (1) , 208-21.
  • Ehrman, L. A., Williams, M. T., Schaefer, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Reed, T. M., Fienberg, A. A., Greengard, P., & Vorhees, C. V. (2006). Phosphodiesterase 1B differentially modulates the effects of methamphetamine on locomotor activity and spatial learning through DARPP32-dependent pathways: evidence from PDE1B-DARPP32 double-knockout mice. . Genes, Brain, and Behavior , 5 (7) , 540-51.
  • Schaefer, T. L., Ehrman, L. A., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2006). Comparison of monoamine and corticosterone levels 24 h following (+)methamphetamine, (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, (+)fenfluramine or (+/-)methylphenidate administration in the neonatal rat. . Journal of Neurochemistry , 98 (5) , 1369-78.
  • Williams, M. T., Schaefer, T. L., Furay, A. R., Ehrman, L. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (2006). Ontogeny of the adrenal response to (+)-methamphetamine in neonatal rats: the effect of prior drug exposure. . Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) , 9 (3) , 153-63.
  • Adhami, F., Liao, G., Morozov, Y. M., Schloemer, A., Schmithorst, V. J., Lorenz, J. N., Dunn, R. S., Vorhees, C. V., Wills-Karp, M., Degen, J. L., Davis, R. J., Mizushima, N., Rakic, P., Dardzinski, B. J., Holland, S. K., Sharp, F. R., & Kuan, C. (2006). Cerebral ischemia-hypoxia induces intravascular coagulation and autophagy. . The American Journal of Pathology , 169 (2) , 566-83.
  • Able, J. A., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2006). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in adult rats produces deficits in path integration and spatial reference memory. . Biological Psychiatry , 59 (12) , 1219-26.
  • Crawford, C. A., Williams, M. T., Kohutek, J. L., Choi, F. Y., Yoshida, S. T., McDougall, S. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (2006). Neonatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure alters neuronal protein kinase A activity, serotonin and dopamine content, and [35S]GTPgammaS binding in adult rats. . Brain Research , 1077 (1) , 178-86.
  • Curran, C. P., Miller, K. A., Dalton, T. P., Vorhees, C. V., Miller, M. L., Shertzer, H. G., & Nebert, D. W. (2006). Genetic differences in lethality of newborn mice treated in utero with coplanar versus non-coplanar hexabromobiphenyl. . Toxicological Sciences : An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology , 89 (2) , 454-64.
  • Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2006). Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory. . Nature Protocols , 1 (2) , 848-58.
  • Brunskill, E. W., Ehrman, L. A., Williams, M. T., Klanke, J., Hammer, D., Schaefer, T. L., Sah, R., Dorn, G. W., Potter, S. S., & Vorhees, C. V. (2005). Abnormal neurodevelopment, neurosignaling and behaviour in Npas3-deficient mice. . The European Journal of Neuroscience , 22 (6) , 1265-76.
  • Cohen, M. A., Skelton, M. R., Schaefer, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2005). Learning and memory after neonatal exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) in rats: interaction with exposure in adulthood. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 57 (3) , 148-59.
  • Broening, H. W., Morford, L. L., & Vorhees, C. V. (2005). Interactions of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists with D-methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopamine and serotonin reductions. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 56 (2) , 84-93.
  • Williams, M. T., Schaefer, T. L., Ehrman, L. A., Able, J. A., Gudelsky, G. A., Sah, R., & Vorhees, C. V. (2005). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine administration on postnatal day 11 in rats increases pituitary-adrenal output and reduces striatal and hippocampal serotonin without altering SERT activity. . Brain Research , 1039 (1-2) , 97-107.
  • Lanphear, B. P., Vorhees, C. V., & Bellinger, D. C. (2005). Protecting children from environmental toxins. . PLoS Medicine , 2 (3) , e61.
  • Skelton, M. R., Blankenmeyer, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Brown-Strittholt, C. A., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. (2004). Metyrapone attenuates the sequential learning deficits but not monoamine depletions following d,l-fenfluramine administration to adult rats. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 54 (4) , 214-22.
  • Kuan, C., Schloemer, A. J., Lu, A., Burns, K. A., Weng, W., Williams, M. T., Strauss, K. I., Vorhees, C. V., Flavell, R. A., Davis, R. J., Sharp, F. R., & Rakic, P. (2004). Hypoxia-ischemia induces DNA synthesis without cell proliferation in dying neurons in adult rodent brain. . The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience , 24 (47) , 10763-72.
  • Williams, M. T., Brown, R. W., & Vorhees, C. V. (2004). Neonatal methamphetamine administration induces region-specific long-term neuronal morphological changes in the rat hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and parietal cortex. . The European Journal of Neuroscience , 19 (12) , 3165-70.
  • Williams, M. T., Blankenmeyer, T. L., Schaefer, T. L., Brown, C. A., Gudelsky, G. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (2003). Long-term effects of neonatal methamphetamine exposure in rats on spatial learning in the Barnes maze and on cliff avoidance, corticosterone release, and neurotoxicity in adulthood. . Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research , 147 (1-2) , 163-75.
  • Skelton, M. R., Ponniah, S., Wang, D. Z., Doetschman, T., Vorhees, C. V., & Pallen, C. J. (2003). Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP alpha) knockout mice show deficits in Morris water maze learning, decreased locomotor activity, and decreases in anxiety. . Brain Research , 984 (1-2) , 1-10.
  • Williams, M. T., Moran, M. S., & Vorhees, C. V. (2003). Refining the critical period for methamphetamine-induced spatial deficits in the Morris water maze. . Psychopharmacology , 168 (3) , 329-38.
  • Williams, M. T., Morford, L. L., Wood, S. L., Wallace, T. L., Fukumura, M., Broening, H. W., & Vorhees, C. V. (2003). Developmental D-methamphetamine treatment selectively induces spatial navigation impairments in reference memory in the Morris water maze while sparing working memory. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 48 (3) , 138-48.
  • Crawford, C. A., Williams, M. T., Newman, E. R., McDougall, S. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (2003). Methamphetamine exposure during the preweanling period causes prolonged changes in dorsal striatal protein kinase A activity, dopamine D2-like binding sites, and dopamine content. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 48 (3) , 131-7.
  • Williams, M. T., Morford, L. L., Wood, S. L., Rock, S. L., McCrea, A. E., Fukumura, M., Wallace, T. L., Broening, H. W., Moran, M. S., & Vorhees, C. V. (2003). Developmental 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) impairs sequential and spatial but not cued learning independent of growth, litter effects or injection stress. . Brain Research , 968 (1) , 89-101.
  • Wallace, T. L., Vorhees, C. V., Zemlan, F. P., & Gudelsky, G. A. (2003). Methamphetamine enhances the cleavage of the cytoskeletal protein tau in the rat brain. . Neuroscience , 116 (4) , 1063-8.
  • Williams, M. T., Vorhees, C. V., Boon, F., Saber, A. J., & Cain, D. P. (2002). Methamphetamine exposure from postnatal day 11 to 20 causes impairments in both behavioral strategies and spatial learning in adult rats. . Brain Research , 958 (2) , 312-21.
  • Zhang, J., McQuade, J. M. S., Vorhees, C. V., & Xu, M. (2002). Hippocampal expression of c-fos is not essential for spatial learning. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 46 (2) , 91-9.
  • Morford, L. L., Inman-Wood, S. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. (2002). Impaired spatial and sequential learning in rats treated neonatally with D-fenfluramine. . The European Journal of Neuroscience , 16 (3) , 491-500.
  • Reed, T. M., Repaske, D. R., Snyder, G. L., Greengard, P., & Vorhees, C. V. (2002). Phosphodiesterase 1B knock-out mice exhibit exaggerated locomotor hyperactivity and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in response to dopamine agonists and display impaired spatial learning. . The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience , 22 (12) , 5188-97.
  • Slane McQuade, J. M., Vorhees, C. V., Xu, M., & Zhang, J. (2002). DNA fragmentation factor 45 knockout mice exhibit longer memory retention in the novel object recognition task compared to wild-type mice. . Physiology & Behavior , 76 (2) , 315-20.
  • Broening, H. W., Morford, L. L., Inman-Wood, S. L., Fukumura, M., & Vorhees, C. V. (2001). 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)-induced learning and memory impairments depend on the age of exposure during early development. . The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience , 21 (9) , 3228-35.
  • Wallace, T. L., Vorhees, C. V., & Gudelsky, G. A. (2001). Effects of lubeluzole on the methamphetamine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate and the long-term depletion of striatal dopamine. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 40 (2) , 95-101.
  • Wallace, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (2001). Alterations in diurnal and nocturnal locomotor activity in rats treated with a monoamine-depleting regimen of methamphetamine or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. . Psychopharmacology , 153 (3) , 321-6.
  • Wallace, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (2001). Neurotoxic regimen of methamphetamine produces evidence of behavioral sensitization in the rat. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 39 (1) , 1-7.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Inman-Wood, S. L., Morford, L. L., Broening, H. W., Fukumura, M., & Moran, M. S. (2000). Adult learning deficits after neonatal exposure to D-methamphetamine: selective effects on spatial navigation and memory. . The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience , 20 (12) , 4732-9.
  • Slane, J. M., Lee, H. S., Vorhees, C. V., Zhang, J., & Xu, M. (2000). DNA fragmentation factor 45 deficient mice exhibit enhanced spatial learning and memory compared to wild-type control mice. . Brain Research , 867 (1-2) , 70-9.
  • Cappon, G. D., Pu, C., & Vorhees, C. V. (2000). Time-course of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in rat caudate-putamen after single-dose treatment. . Brain Research , 863 (1-2) , 106-11.
  • Xu, M., Guo, Y., Vorhees, C. V., & Zhang, J. (2000). Behavioral responses to cocaine and amphetamine administration in mice lacking the dopamine D1 receptor. . Brain Research , 852 (1) , 198-207.
  • Wallace, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (1999). Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity alters locomotor activity, stereotypic behavior, and stimulated dopamine release in the rat. . The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society For Neuroscience , 19 (20) , 9141-8.
  • Bell, S. M., Schreiner, C. M., Schultheis, P. J., Miller, M. L., Evans, R. L., Vorhees, C. V., Shull, G. E., & Scott, W. J. (1999). Targeted disruption of the murine Nhe1 locus induces ataxia, growth retardation, and seizures. . The American Journal of Physiology , 276 (4 Pt 1) , C788-95.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Morford, L. L., Inman, S. L., Reed, T. M., Schilling, M. A., Cappon, G. D., Moran, M. S., & Nebert, D. W. (1999). Genetic differences in spatial learning between Dark Agouti and Sprague-Dawley strains: possible correlation with the CYP2D2 polymorphism in rats treated neonatally with methamphetamine. . Pharmacogenetics , 9 (2) , 171-81.
  • Fukumura, M., Cappon, G. D., Pu, C., Broening, H. W., & Vorhees, C. V. (1998). A single dose model of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in rats: effects on neostriatal monoamines and glial fibrillary acidic protein. . Brain Research , 806 (1) , 1-7.
  • Reed, T. M., Browning, J. E., Blough, R. I., Vorhees, C. V., & Repaske, D. R. (1998). Genomic structure and chromosome location of the murine PDE1B phosphodiesterase gene. . Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society , 9 (7) , 571-6.
  • Cappon, G. D., Morford, L. L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1997). Ontogeny of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and associated hyperthermic response. . Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research , 103 (2) , 155-62.
  • Vorhees, C V (1997). Methods for detecting long-term CNS dysfunction after prenatal exposure to neurotoxins. . Drug and Chemical Toxicology , 20 (4) , 387-99.
  • Broening, H. W., Pu, C., & Vorhees, C. V. (1997). Methamphetamine selectively damages dopaminergic innervation to the nucleus accumbens core while sparing the shell. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 27 (2) , 153-60.
  • Cappon, G. D., Broening, H. W., Pu, C., Morford, L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1996). alpha-Phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone attenuates methamphetamine-induced depletion of striatal dopamine without altering hyperthermia. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 24 (2) , 173-81.
  • Pu, C., Broening, H. W., & Vorhees, C. V. (1996). Effect of methamphetamine on glutamate-positive neurons in the adult and developing rat somatosensory cortex. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 23 (4) , 328-34.
  • Fisher, J. E., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Meyer, R. A., Smith, N. B., Moran, M. S., O'Brien, W. D., & Vorhees, C. V. (1996). Behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to pulsed-wave ultrasound in unanesthetized rats. . Teratology , 54 (2) , 65-72.
  • Vorhees, C V (1996). Long-term effects of developmental exposure to cocaine on learned and unlearned behaviors. . NIDA Research Monograph , 164 , 3-52.
  • Schreiner, C. M., Collins, M. D., Scott, W. J., Vorhees, C. V., Colvin, J., & McCandless, D. (1995). Estimating intracellular pH in developing rodent embryos using a computer imaging technique: changes in embryonic pH and proliferation rates following maternal treatment with acetazolamide. . Teratology , 52 (3) , 160-8.
  • Pu, C., & Vorhees, C. V. (1995). Protective effects of MK-801 on methamphetamine-induced depletion of dopaminergic and serotonergic terminals and striatal astrocytic response: an immunohistochemical study. . Synapse (New York, N.Y.) , 19 (2) , 97-104.
  • Vorhees, C. V., & Pu, C. (1995). Ontogeny of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in the rat model. . NIDA Research Monograph , 158 , 149-71.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Fisher, J. E., Meyer, R. A., Smith, N. B., Ellis, D. S., & O'Brien, W. D. (1994). Behavioral teratologic effects of prenatal exposure to continuous-wave ultrasound in unanesthetized rats. . Teratology , 50 (3) , 238-49.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Fisher, J. E., Moran, M. S., & Buelke-Sam, J. (1994). A developmental neurotoxicity evaluation of the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine in rats. . Fundamental and Applied Toxicology : Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology , 23 (2) , 194-205.
  • Pu, C., Fisher, J. E., Cappon, G. D., & Vorhees, C. V. (1994). The effects of amfonelic acid, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic terminal degeneration and astrocytic response in rat striatum. . Brain Research , 649 (1-2) , 217-24.
  • Vorhees, C V (1994). Developmental neurotoxicity induced by therapeutic and illicit drugs. . Environmental Health Perspectives , 102 Suppl 2 , 145-53.
  • Fisher, J. E., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Nau, H., & Vorhees, C. V. (1994). Trans-2-ene-valproic acid is less behaviorally teratogenic than an equivalent dose of valproic acid in rats. . Teratology , 49 (6) , 479-86.
  • Cassidy, R. A., Vorhees, C. V., Minnema, D. J., & Hastings, L. (1994). The effects of chlordane exposure during pre- and postnatal periods at environmentally relevant levels on sex steroid-mediated behaviors and functions in the rat. . Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology , 126 (2) , 326-37.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Ahrens, K. G., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., & Fisher, J. E. (1994). Methamphetamine exposure during early postnatal development in rats: II. Hypoactivity and altered responses to pharmacological challenge. . Psychopharmacology , 114 (3) , 402-8.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Ahrens, K. G., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., & Fisher, J. E. (1994). Methamphetamine exposure during early postnatal development in rats: I. Acoustic startle augmentation and spatial learning deficits. . Psychopharmacology , 114 (3) , 392-401.
  • Paulson, R. B., Shanfeld, J., Vorhees, C. V., Cole, J., Sweazy, A., & Paulson, J. O. (1994). Behavioral effects of smokeless tobacco on the neonate and young Sprague Dawley rat. . Teratology , 49 (4) , 293-305.
  • Fisher, J. E., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Vorhees, C. V., Meyer, R. A., Smith, N. B., & O'Brien, W. D. (1994). Teratologic evaluation of rats prenatally exposed to pulsed-wave ultrasound. . Teratology , 49 (2) , 150-5.
  • Schoenig, G. P., Hartnagel, R. E., Schardein, J. L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1993). Neurotoxicity evaluation of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in rats. . Fundamental and Applied Toxicology : Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology , 21 (3) , 355-65.
  • Pu, C., & Vorhees, C. V. (1993). Developmental dissociation of methamphetamine-induced depletion of dopaminergic terminals and astrocyte reaction in rat striatum. . Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research , 72 (2) , 325-8.
  • Acuff-Smith, K. D., George, M., Lorens, S. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (1992). Preliminary evidence for methamphetamine-induced behavioral and ocular effects in rat offspring following exposure during early organogenesis. . Psychopharmacology , 109 (3) , 255-63.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Weisenburger, W. P., Meyer, R. A., Smith, N. B., & O'Brien, W. D. (1991). A teratologic evaluation of continuous-wave, daily ultrasound exposure in unanesthetized pregnant rats. . Teratology , 44 (6) , 667-74.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Weisenburger, W. P., Minck, D. R., Berry, J. S., Setchell, K. D., & Nau, H. (1991). Lack of teratogenicity of trans-2-ene-valproic acid compared to valproic acid in rats. . Teratology , 43 (6) , 583-90.
  • Minck, D. R., Acuff-Smith, K. D., & Vorhees, C. V. (1991). Comparison of the behavioral teratogenic potential of phenytoin, mephenytoin, ethotoin, and hydantoin in rats. . Teratology , 43 (4) , 279-93.
  • Vorhees, C V (1991). Comment on Tachibana's reply to Buelke-Sam et al., Springer et al., and Gaylor regarding reply to: comments on "Behavioral teratogenic effect of methylmercury and d-amphetamine: meta-analysis and power analysis of data from the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study of National Center for Toxicological Research. . Teratology , 43 (3) , 189-90.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Rindler, J. M., & Minck, D. R. (1990). Effects of exposure period and nutrition on the developmental neurotoxicity of anticonvulsants in rats: short and long-term effects. . Neurotoxicology , 11 (2) , 273-83.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff, K. D., Weisenburger, W. P., & Minck, D. R. (1990). Teratogenicity of carbamazepine in rats. . Teratology , 41 (3) , 311-7.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Rauch, S. L., & Hitzemann, R. J. (1990). Prenatal phenytoin exposure decreases neuronal membrane order in rat offspring hippocampus. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 8 (3) , 283-8.
  • Vorhees, C V (1989). A perspective on Tachibana's eta-squared analysis of the results of the NCTR collaborative behavioral teratology study. . Psychological Reports , 65 (3 Pt 1) , 819-23.
  • Vorhees, C. V., & Berry, H. K. (1989). Branched chain amino acids improve complex maze learning in rat offspring prenatally exposed to hyperphenylalaninemia: implications for maternal phenylketonuria. . Pediatric Research , 25 (6) , 568-72.
  • Vorhees, C V (1989). Concepts in teratology and developmental toxicology derived from animal research. . Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 562 , 31-41.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Rauch, S., & Hitzemann, R. (1988). Effects of short-term prenatal alcohol exposure on neuronal membrane order in rats. . Brain Research , 466 (2) , 161-6.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Minck, D. R., & Berry, H. K. (1988). Anticonvulsants and brain development. . Progress in Brain Research , 73 , 229-44.
  • Vorhees, C V (1987). Fetal hydantoin syndrome in rats: dose-effect relationships of prenatal phenytoin on postnatal development and behavior. . Teratology , 35 (3) , 287-303.
  • Vorhees, C V (1987). Teratogenicity and developmental toxicity of valproic acid in rats. . Teratology , 35 (2) , 195-202.
  • Vorhees, C V (1987). Behavioral teratogenicity of valproic acid: selective effects on behavior after prenatal exposure to rats. . Psychopharmacology , 92 (2) , 173-9.
  • Vorhees, C V (1986). Developmental effects of anticonvulsants. . Neurotoxicology , 7 (2) , 235-44.
  • Vorhees, C V (1986). Methods for assessing the adverse effects of foods and other chemicals on animal behavior. . Nutrition Reviews , 44 Suppl , 185-93.
  • Vorhees, C V (1986). Fetal anticonvulsant exposure: effects on behavioral and physical development. . Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , 477 , 49-62.
  • Ritschel, W. A., Mandybur, T. I., Grummich, K. W., Vorhees, C. V., & Means, E. D. (1985). Experimental cerebral infarction in Mongolian gerbils: effects of vincamine on lesion size, survival and behavior. . Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology , 48 (2) , 221-42.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., & Brunner, R. L. (1984). Developmental toxicity and psychotoxicity of potassium iodide in rats: a case for the inclusion of behaviour in toxicological assessment. . Food and Chemical Toxicology : An International Journal Published For the British Industrial Biological Research Association , 22 (12) , 963-70.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Fernandez, K., Dumas, R. M., & Haddad, R. K. (1984). Pervasive hyperactivity and long-term learning impairments in rats with induced micrencephaly from prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol. . Brain Research , 317 (1) , 1-10.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Wootten, V. (1984). Behavioral and physical development of rats chronically exposed to caffeinated fluids. . Fundamental and Applied Toxicology : Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology , 4 (1) , 1-13.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Brunner, R. L., & Wootten, V. (1984). Developmental toxicity and psychotoxicity of sodium nitrite in rats. . Food and Chemical Toxicology : An International Journal Published For the British Industrial Biological Research Association , 22 (1) , 1-6.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Wootten, V., & Brunner, R. L. (1983). Behavioral and reproductive effects of chronic developmental exposure to brominated vegetable oil in rats. . Teratology , 28 (3) , 309-18.
  • Vorhees, C V (1983). Fetal anticonvulsant syndrome in rats: dose- and period-response relationships of prenatal diphenylhydantoin, trimethadione and phenobarbital exposure on the structural and functional development of the offspring. . The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 227 (2) , 274-87.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Brunner, R. L., Wootten, V., & Sobotka, T. J. (1983). A developmental toxicity and psychotoxicity evaluation of FD and C red dye 3 (erythrosine) in rats. . Archives of Toxicology , 53 (4) , 253-64.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Brunner, R. L., Wootten, V., & Sobotka, T. J. (1983). Developmental toxicity and psychotoxicity of FD and C red dye No. 40 (allura red AC) in rats. . Toxicology , 28 (3) , 207-17.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Klein, K. L., & Scott, W. J. (1982). Aspirin-induced psychoteratogenesis in rats as a function of embryonic age. . Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis , 2 (1) , 77-84.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Brunner, R. L., Wootten, V., & Sobotka, T. J. (1981). Developmental neurobehavioral toxicity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in rats. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 3 (3) , 321-9.
  • Vorhees, C V (1981). Effects of prenatal naloxone exposure on postnatal behavioral development of rats. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 3 (3) , 295-301.
  • Brunner, R. L., Vorhees, C. V., & Butcher, R. E. (1981). Food colors and behavior. . Science (New York, N.Y.) , 212 (4494) , 578-9.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Brunner, R. L., & Sobotka, T. J. (1981). Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. . Food and Cosmetics Toxicology , 19 (2) , 153-62.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., & Berry, H. K. (1981). Progress in experimental phenylketonuria: a critical review. . Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews , 5 (1) , 177-90.
  • Butcher, R. E., Wootten, V., & Vorhees, C. V. (1980). Standards in behavioral teratology testing: test variability and sensitivity. . Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis , 1 (1) , 49-61.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Brunner, R. L., & Butcher, R. E. (1979). Psychotropic drugs as behavioral teratogens. . Science (New York, N.Y.) , 205 (4412) , 1220-5.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., Brunner, R. L., & Sobotka, T. J. (1979). A developmental test battery for neurobehavioral toxicity in rats: a preliminary analysis using monosodium glutamate calcium carrageenan, and hydroxyurea. . Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology , 50 (2) , 267-82.
  • Butcher, R. E., Hoar, R. M., Nolan, G. A., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). Interlaboratory comparison of behavioral testing. . Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists , 62 (4) , 840-3.
  • Vorhees, C V (1979). Thiamin deficiency induced muricide behavior in rats. . Physiology & Behavior , 23 (1) , 211-4.
  • Brunner, R. L., Vorhees, C. V., Kinney, L., & Butcher, R. E. (1979). Aspartame: assessment of developmental psychotoxicity of a new artificial sweetener. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology , 1 (1) , 79-86.
  • Vorhees, C V (1979). Facilitation of avoidance acquisition in rats produced by P-chlorophenylalanine or P-chloroamphetamine. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 10 (4) , 569-76.
  • Vorhees, C V (1979). Avoidance deficits in rats after recovery from mild to moderate thiamin deficiency. . Behavioral and Neural Biology , 25 (3) , 398-405.
  • Kinney, L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). A comparison of methylphenidate induced active avoidance and water maze performance facilitation. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 10 (3) , 437-9.
  • Akeson, A. L., Berry, H. K., Brunner, R. L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). Brain pyruvate kinase activity in PKU model systems. . Journal of Neurochemistry , 32 (1) , 233-5.
  • Butcher, R. E., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). A preliminary test battery for the investigation of the behavioral teratology of selected psychotropic drugs. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology , 1 Suppl 1 , 207-12.
  • Kinney, L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). A comparison of methylphenidate induced active avoidance and water maze performance facilitation. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 10 (3) , 437-9.
  • Akeson, A. L., Berry, H. K., Brunner, R. L., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). Brain pyruvate kinase activity in PKU model systems. . Journal of Neurochemistry , 32 (1) , 233-5.
  • Butcher, R. E., & Vorhees, C. V. (1979). A preliminary test battery for the investigation of the behavioral teratology of selected psychotropic drugs. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology , 1 Suppl 1 , 207-12.
  • Brunner, R. L., McLean, M., Vorhees, C. V., & Butcher, R. E. (1978). A comparison of behavioral and anatomical measures of hydroxyurea induced abnormalities. . Teratology , 18 (3) , 379-84.
  • Brunner, R. L., Vorhees, C. V., McLean, M. S., Butcher, R. E., & Berry, H. K. (1978). Beneficial effect of isoleucine on fetal brain development in induced phenylketonuria. . Brain Research , 154 (1) , 191-5.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Brunner, R. L., McDaniel, C. R., & Butcher, R. E. (1978). The relationship of gestational age to vitamin A induced postnatal dysfunction. . Teratology , 17 (3) , 271-5.
  • Brunner, R. L., McLean, M., Vorhees, C. V., & Butcher, R. E. (1978). A comparison of behavioral and anatomical measures of hydroxyurea induced abnormalities. . Teratology , 18 (3) , 379-84.
  • Brunner, R. L., Vorhees, C. V., McLean, M. S., Butcher, R. E., & Berry, H. K. (1978). Beneficial effect of isoleucine on fetal brain development in induced phenylketonuria. . Brain Research , 154 (1) , 191-5.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Brunner, R. L., McDaniel, C. R., & Butcher, R. E. (1978). The relationship of gestational age to vitamin A induced postnatal dysfunction. . Teratology , 17 (3) , 271-5.
  • Parker, T. H., Roberts, R. K., Vorhees, C. V., Schmidt, D. E., & Schenker, S. (1977). The effect of acute and subacute ammonia intoxication on regional cerebral acetylcholine levels in rats. . Biochemical Medicine , 18 (2) , 235-44.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schmidt, D. E., Barrett, R. J., & Schenker, S. (1977). Effects of thiamin deficiency on acetylcholine levels and utilization in vivo in rat brain. . The Journal of Nutrition , 107 (10) , 1902-8.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., Kindt, C. W., Kazmaier-Novak, K. J., & Berry, H. K. (1977). Induced PKU in rats: effects of age and melatonin treatment. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 7 (2) , 129-33.
  • Parker, T. H., Roberts, R. K., Vorhees, C. V., Schmidt, D. E., & Schenker, S. (1977). The effect of acute and subacute ammonia intoxication on regional cerebral acetylcholine levels in rats. . Biochemical Medicine , 18 (2) , 235-44.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schmidt, D. E., Barrett, R. J., & Schenker, S. (1977). Effects of thiamin deficiency on acetylcholine levels and utilization in vivo in rat brain. . The Journal of Nutrition , 107 (10) , 1902-8.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., Kindt, C. W., Kazmaier-Novak, K. J., & Berry, H. K. (1977). Induced PKU in rats: effects of age and melatonin treatment. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 7 (2) , 129-33.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Barrett, R. J., & Schenker, S. (1975). Increased muricide and decreased avoidance and discrimination learning in thiamine deficient rats. . Life Sciences , 16 (7) , 1187-99.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Barrett, R. J., & Schenker, S. (1975). Increased muricide and decreased avoidance and discrimination learning in thiamine deficient rats. . Life Sciences , 16 (7) , 1187-99.
  • Vorhees, C V (1974). Some behavioral effects of maternal hypervitaminosis A in rats. . Teratology , 10 (3) , 269-73.
  • Kimmel, C. A., Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Schumacher, H. J. (1974). Metal-salt potentiation of salicylate-induced teratogenesis and behavioral changes in rats. . Teratology , 10 (3) , 293-300.
  • Vorhees, C V (1974). Some behavioral effects of maternal hypervitaminosis A in rats. . Teratology , 10 (3) , 269-73.
  • Kimmel, C. A., Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Schumacher, H. J. (1974). Metal-salt potentiation of salicylate-induced teratogenesis and behavioral changes in rats. . Teratology , 10 (3) , 293-300.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., Kindt, C. W., & Keenan, W. J. (1972). An experimental evaluation of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat. . American Journal of Diseases of Children (1960) , 123 (6) , 576-8.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Kimmel, C. A. (1972). Leaning impairment from maternal salicylate treatment in rats. . Nature: New Biology , 236 (68) , 211-2.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., & Berry, H. K. (1972). Reduced activity in rats with induced phenylketonuria. . Developmental Psychobiology , 5 (2) , 175-9.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., Kindt, C. W., & Keenan, W. J. (1972). An experimental evaluation of phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia in the Gunn rat. . American Journal of Diseases of Children (1960) , 123 (6) , 576-8.
  • Butcher, R. E., Vorhees, C. V., & Kimmel, C. A. (1972). Leaning impairment from maternal salicylate treatment in rats. . Nature: New Biology , 236 (68) , 211-2.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Butcher, R. E., & Berry, H. K. (1972). Reduced activity in rats with induced phenylketonuria. . Developmental Psychobiology , 5 (2) , 175-9.
  • Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Gudelsky, G. A., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. Neonatal methamphetamine-induced corticosterone release in rats is inhibited by adrenal autotransplantation without altering the effect of the drug on hippocampal serotonin. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 32 (3) , 356-61.
  • Grace, C. E., Schaefer, T. L., Herring, N. R., Graham, D. L., Skelton, M. R., Gudelsky, G. A., Williams, M. T., & Vorhees, C. V. Effect of a neurotoxic dose regimen of (+)-methamphetamine on behavior, plasma corticosterone, and brain monoamines in adult C57BL/6 mice. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 32 (3) , 346-55.
  • Graham, D. L., Herring, N. R., Schaefer, T. L., Vorhees, C. V., & Williams, M. T. Glucose and corticosterone changes in developing and adult rats following exposure to (+/-)-3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine or 5-methoxydiisopropyltryptamine. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 32 (2) , 152-7.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Johnson, H. L., Burns, L. N., & Williams, M. T. Developmental treatment with the dopamine D2/3 agonist quinpirole selectively impairs spatial learning in the Morris water maze. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 31 (1) , 1-10.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Reed, T. M., Morford, L. L., Fukumura, M., Wood, S. L., Brown, C. A., Skelton, M. R., McCrea, A. E., Rock, S. L., & Williams, M. T. Periadolescent rats (P41-50) exhibit increased susceptibility to D-methamphetamine-induced long-term spatial and sequential learning deficits compared to juvenile (P21-30 or P31-40) or adult rats (P51-60). . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 27 (1) , 117-34.
  • Williams, M. T., Brown, C. A., Skelton, M. R., Vinks, A. A., & Vorhees, C. V. Absorption and clearance of +/-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine from the plasma of neonatal rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 26 (6) , 849-56.
  • Williams, M. T., Moran, M. S., & Vorhees, C. V. Behavioral and growth effects induced by low dose methamphetamine administration during the neonatal period in rats. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 22 (5-6) , 273-83.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Reed, T. M., Skelton, M. R., & Williams, M. T. Exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on postnatal days 11-20 induces reference but not working memory deficits in the Morris water maze in rats: implications of prior learning. . International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the International Society For Developmental Neuroscience , 22 (5-6) , 247-59.
  • Williams, M. T., Morford, L. L., McCrea, A. E., Wood, S. L., & Vorhees, C. V. Administration of D,L-fenfluramine to rats produces learning deficits in the Cincinnati water maze but not the Morris water maze: relationship to adrenal cortical output. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 24 (6) , 783-96.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Weisenburger, W. P., & Minck, D. R. Neurobehavioral teratogenic effects of thalidomide in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 23 (3) , 255-64.
  • Cappon, G. D., & Vorhees, C. V. Plasma and brain methamphetamine concentrations in neonatal rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 23 (1) , 81-8.
  • Williams, M. T., Morford, L. L., McCrea, A. E., Inman-Wood, S. L., & Vorhees, C. V. Elevations in plasmatic titers of corticosterone and aldosterone, in the absence of changes in ACTH, testosterone, or glial fibrillary acidic protein, 72 h following D,L-fenfluramine or D-fenfluramine administration to rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 23 (1) , 23-32.
  • Williams, M. T., Inman-Wood, S. L., Morford, L. L., McCrea, A. E., Ruttle, A. M., Moran, M. S., Rock, S. L., & Vorhees, C. V. Preweaning treatment with methamphetamine induces increases in both corticosterone and ACTH in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 22 (5) , 751-9.
  • Inman-Wood, S. L., Williams, M. T., Morford, L. L., & Vorhees, C. V. Effects of prenatal cocaine on Morris and Barnes maze tests of spatial learning and memory in the offspring of C57BL/6J mice. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 22 (4) , 547-57.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Inman-Wood, S. L., Morford, L. L., Reed, T. M., Moran, M. S., Pu, C., & Cappon, G. D. Evaluation of neonatal exposure to cocaine on learning, activity, startle, scent marking, immobility, and plasma cocaine concentrations. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 22 (2) , 255-65.
  • Schilling, M. A., Inman, S. L., Morford, L. L., Moran, M. S., & Vorhees, C. V. Prenatal phenytoin exposure and spatial navigation in offspring: effects on reference and working memory and on discrimination learning. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 21 (5) , 567-78.
  • Strother, W. N., Vorhees, C. V., & Lehman, M. N. Long-term effects of early cocaine exposure on the light responsiveness of the adult circadian timing system. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 20 (5) , 555-64.
  • Cappon, G. D., Morford, L. L., & Vorhees, C. V. Enhancement of cocaine-induced hyperthermia fails to elicit neurotoxicity. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 20 (5) , 531-5.
  • Fukumura, M., Cappon, G. D., Broening, H. W., & Vorhees, C. V. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin reductions in neostriatum are not gender specific in rats with comparable hyperthermic responses. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 20 (4) , 441-8.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Reed, T. M., Schilling, M. A., Fisher, J. E., Moran, M. S., Cappon, G. D., & Nebert, D. W. CYP2D1 polymorphism in methamphetamine-treated rats: genetic differences in neonatal mortality and effects on spatial learning and acoustic startle. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 20 (3) , 265-73.
  • Fukumura, M., Sethi, N., & Vorhees, C. V. Effects of the neurotoxin 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile on acoustic startle and locomotor activity in rats: a comparison of functional observational and automated startle assessment methods. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 20 (2) , 203-11.
  • Scott, W. J., Schreiner, C. M., Nau, H., Vorhees, C. V., Beliles, R. P., Colvin, J., & McCandless, D. Valproate-induced limb malformations in mice associated with reduction of intracellular pH. . Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) , 11 (4) , 483-93.
  • Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Fisher, J. E., & Vorhees, C. V. Stage-specific effects of prenatal d-methamphetamine exposure on behavioral and eye development in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 18 (2) , 199-215.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Reed, T. M., Schilling, M. S., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Fisher, J. E., & Moran, M. S. Neonatal methamphetamine-induced long-term acoustic startle facilitation in rats as a function of prepulse stimulus intensity. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 18 (2) , 135-9.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., & Moran, M. S. Prenatal exposure to sodium phenytoin in rats induces complex maze learning deficits comparable to those induced by exposure to phenytoin acid at half the dose. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 17 (6) , 627-32.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Reed, T. M., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Schilling, M. A., Cappon, G. D., Fisher, J. E., & Pu, C. Long-term learning deficits and changes in unlearned behaviors following in utero exposure to multiple daily doses of cocaine during different exposure periods and maternal plasma cocaine concentrations. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 17 (3) , 253-64.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Moran, M. S., & Minck, D. R. A new method for evaluating air-righting reflex ontogeny in rats using prenatal exposure to phenytoin to demonstrate delayed development. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 16 (6) , 563-73.
  • Paulson, R. B., Shanfeld, J., Vorhees, C. V., Sweazy, A., Gagni, S., Smith, A. R., & Paulson, J. O. Behavioral effects of prenatally administered smokeless tobacco on rat offspring. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 15 (3) , 183-92.
  • Fisher, J. E., & Vorhees, C. V. Developmental toxicity of antiepileptic drugs: relationship to postnatal dysfunction. . Pharmacological Research : the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society , 26 (3) , 207-21.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Minck, D. R., & Butcher, R. E. A method for measuring locomotor behavior in rodents: contrast-sensitive computer-controlled video tracking activity assessment in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 14 (1) , 43-9.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Acuff-Smith, K. D., Weisenburger, W. P., Minck, D. R., & Berry, H. K. Branched chain amino acids improve radial-arm maze acquisition and water maze forced-choice learning in rat offspring exposed in utero to hyperphenylalaninemia. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 14 (1) , 35-41.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Rauch, S. L., & Hitzemann, R. J. Prenatal valproic acid exposure decreases neuronal membrane order in rat offspring hippocampus and cortex. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 13 (4) , 471-4.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Weisenburger, W. P., Acuff-Smith, K. D., & Minck, D. R. An analysis of factors influencing complex water maze learning in rats: effects of task complexity, path order and escape assistance on performance following prenatal exposure to phenytoin. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 13 (2) , 213-22.
  • Vorhees, C. V., & Acuff-Smith, K. D. Prenatal methamphetamine-induced anophthalmia in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 12 (4) , 409.
  • Adams, J., Vorhees, C. V., & Middaugh, L. D. Developmental neurotoxicity of anticonvulsants: human and animal evidence on phenytoin. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 12 (3) , 203-14.
  • Weisenburger, W. P., Minck, D. R., Acuff, K. D., & Vorhees, C. V. Dose-response effects of prenatal phenytoin exposure in rats: effects on early locomotion, maze learning, and memory as a function of phenytoin-induced circling behavior. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 12 (2) , 145-52.
  • Vorhees, C V Sample size determinations using examples drawn from the NCTR Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study data. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (4) , 381-3.
  • Maurissen, J. P., & Vorhees, C. V. Uses of the coefficient of detection and sample size determination. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (4) , 377-9.
  • Vorhees, C V Behavioral Teratology: What's Not in a Name: A reply to Cattabeni and Abbracchio. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (4) , 325-7.
  • Minck, D. R., Erway, L. C., & Vorhees, C. V. Preliminary findings of a reduction of otoconia in the inner ear of adult rats prenatally exposed to phenytoin. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (3) , 307-11.
  • Vorhees, C. V., & Minck, D. R. Long-term effects of prenatal phenytoin exposure on offspring behavior in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (3) , 295-305.
  • Nelson, B. K., Vorhees, C. V., Scott, W. J., & Hastings, L. Effects of 2-methoxyethanol on fetal development, postnatal behavior, and embryonic intracellular pH of rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (3) , 273-84.
  • Vorhees, C V A fostering/crossfostering analysis of the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in a liquid diet on offspring development and behavior in rats. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 11 (2) , 115-20.
  • Vorhees, C V Maternal age as a factor in determining the reproductive and behavioral outcome of rats prenatally exposed to ethanol. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 10 (1) , 23-34.
  • Vorhees, C V Reliability, sensitivity and validity of behavioral indices of neurotoxicity. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 9 (6) , 445-64.
  • Vorhees, C V Maze learning in rats: a comparison of performance in two water mazes in progeny prenatally exposed to different doses of phenytoin. . Neurotoxicology and Teratology , 9 (3) , 235-41.
  • Vorhees, C. V., & Fernandez, K. Effects of short-term prenatal alcohol exposure on maze, activity, and olfactory orientation performance in rats. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 8 (1) , 23-8.
  • Vorhees, C V Behavioral effects of prenatal methylmercury in rats: a parallel trial to the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 7 (6) , 717-25.
  • Vorhees, C V Behavioral effects of prenatal d-amphetamine in rats: a parallel trial to the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 7 (6) , 709-16.
  • Sobotka, T. J., & Vorhees, C. V. Application of behavioral teratology testing procedures. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 7 (6) , 665.
  • Vorhees, C V Comparison of the Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study and Cincinnati Behavioral Teratology test batteries. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 7 (6) , 625-33.
  • Buelke-Sam, J., Kimmel, C. A., Adams, J., Nelson, C. J., Vorhees, C. V., Wright, D. C., St Omer, V., Korol, B. A., Butcher, R. E., & Geyer, M. A. Collaborative Behavioral Teratology Study: results. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 7 (6) , 591-624.
  • Vorhees, C V Fetal anticonvulsant syndrome in rats: effects on postnatal behavior and brain amino acid content. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 7 (5) , 471-82.
  • Vorhees, C V Influence of early testing on postweaning performance in untreated F344 rats, with comparisons to Sprague-Dawley rats, using a standardized battery of tests for behavioral teratogenesis. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 5 (5) , 587-91.
  • Shore, C. O., Vorhees, C. V., Bornschein, R. L., & Stemmer, K. Behavioral consequences of prenatal diazepam exposure in rats. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 5 (5) , 565-70.
  • Vorhees, C V Behavioral teratogenicity testing as a method of screening for hazards to human health: a methodological proposal. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 5 (4) , 469-74.
  • Fernandez, K., Caul, W. F., Haenlein, M., & Vorhees, C. V. Effects of prenatal alcohol on homing behavior, maternal responding and open-field activity in rats. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 5 (3) , 351-6.
  • Fernandez, K., & Vorhees, C. V. Persistent body weight deficits in lactating rats treated with alcohol during pregnancy. . Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology , 4 (5) , 495-6.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schmidt, D. E., & Barrett, R. J. Effects of pyrithiamin and oxythiamin on acetylcholine levels and utilization in rat brain. . Brain Research Bulletin , 3 (5) , 493-6.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schaefer, G. J., & Barrett, R. J. p-chloroamphetamine: behavioral effects of reduced cerebral serotonin in rats. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 3 (2) , 279-84.
  • Schaefer, G. J., Barrett, R. J., Sanders-Bush, E., & Vorhees, C. V. p-Chloroamphetamine: evidence against a serotonin mediated learning deficit in PKU. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 2 (6) , 783-9.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schmidt, D. E., & Barrett, R. J. Effects of pyrithiamin and oxythiamin on acetylcholine levels and utilization in rat brain. . Brain Research Bulletin , 3 (5) , 493-6.
  • Vorhees, C. V., Schaefer, G. J., & Barrett, R. J. p-chloroamphetamine: behavioral effects of reduced cerebral serotonin in rats. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 3 (2) , 279-84.
  • Schaefer, G. J., Barrett, R. J., Sanders-Bush, E., & Vorhees, C. V. p-Chloroamphetamine: evidence against a serotonin mediated learning deficit in PKU. . Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior , 2 (6) , 783-9.

Recent Awards/Honors:

  • Eli Lilly Distinguished Lecturer, 1990
  • Member, Neurophysiology and Neuroanatomy Study Section, National Institutes of Health, 1994,1998
  • Member, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Committee, National Research Council of the National Academy of Science, 1997,2000
  • Grass Foundation Lecturer, 2002
  • National Institute of Mental Health Predoctoral fellowship

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