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Department of Internal Medicine

Infectious Diseases

Photo of  Melanie Cushion, PhD

Melanie Cushion, PhD

Senior Associate Dean for Research

Education/Credentials
  • Bachelor's Degree: St. Joseph's College
  • Doctoral Degree: St. Thomas Institute
  • Fellowship: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine

Research/Clinical Interests

Fungi in the genus Pneumocystis cause an oftentimes lethal pneumonia (PCP) in humans and other mammals with compromised immune status. The niche of these fungi include patients with underlying chronic diseases such as COPD or HIV and those receiving anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive agents. PCP is not responsive to standard antifungal therapy with few treatment alternatives besides tri¬methoprim-sulfamethoxazole. My laboratory focuses on pre-clinical drug development that includes discovery of potential new targets by understanding the metabolism of these obli¬gate fungi; in silico or in vitro screening of inhibitors to identify potential new drugs; evaluation of toxicity in vitro, and eventually evaluation in rodent animal models of this fungal pneumonia. Approaches used for discovery include RNA_seq, comparative genomics, and validation by qRT-PCR; high-throughput screening using yeast expression as well as new approaches such as alveolar organoids to grow these unculturable fungi outside the lung.

Contact Information
  • CARE / Crawley Building
  • Room E870
  • 3223 Eden Avenue
  • Cincinnati, Ohio 45267
  • Office 513-558-7540
  • Fax 513-558-4408
  • Email melanie.cushion@uc.edu

Peer Reviewed Publications

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Cushion, Melanie T 2018. Reply to Nevez et al., "The Fascinating Echinocandin-Treated Mouse Model of Pneumocystis murina To Understand Pneumocystis jirovecii". Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 62 8,

Cushion, Melanie T; Ashbaugh, Alan; Hendrix, Keeley; Linke, Michael J; Tisdale, Nikeya; Sayson, Steven G; Porollo, Aleksey 2018. Gene Expression of Pneumocystis murina after Treatment with Anidulafungin Results in Strong Signals for Sexual Reproduction, Cell Wall Integrity, and Cell Cycle Arrest, Indicating a Requirement for Ascus Formation for Proliferation. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 62 5,

Cushion, Melanie T; Limper, Andrew H; Porollo, Aleksey; Saper, Vivian E; Sinai, Anthony P; Weiss, Louis M 2018. The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP 14). The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 65 6, 934-939

Hauser, Philippe M; Cushion, Melanie T 2018. Is sex necessary for the proliferation and transmission of Pneumocystis? PLoS pathogens, 14 12, e1007409

Lazzarini, Cristina; Haranahalli, Krupanandan; Rieger, Robert; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Desai, Pankaj B; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J; Cushion, Melanie T; Ruzsicska, Bela; Haley, John; Ojima, Iwao; Del Poeta, Maurizio 2018. Acylhydrazones as Antifungal Agents Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 62 5,

Liu, Guan-Sheng; Ballweg, Richard; Ashbaugh, Alan; Zhang, Yin; Facciolo, Joseph; Cushion, Melanie T; Zhang, Tongli 2018. A quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model for Pneumocystis treatment in mice. BMC systems biology, 12 1, 77

Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Del Poeta, Maurizio 2018. Erratum for Mor et al., "Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids". mBio, 9 2,

Baker, Frazier N; Cushion, Melanie T; Porollo, Aleksey 2016. A Quantitative Model to Estimate Drug Resistance in Pathogens. Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 2 4,

Cushion, Melanie T; Collins, Margaret S; Sesterhenn, Thomas; Porollo, Aleksey; Vadukoot, Anish Kizhakkekkara; Merino, Edward J 2016. Functional Characterization of Pneumocystis carinii Inositol Transporter 1. mBio, 7 6,

Koselny, Kristy; Green, Julianne; DiDone, Louis; Halterman, Justin P; Fothergill, Annette W; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Patterson, Thomas F; Cushion, Melanie T; Rappelye, Chad; Wellington, Melanie; Krysan, Damian J 2016. The Celecoxib Derivative AR-12 Has Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity In Vitro and Improves the Activity of Fluconazole in a Murine Model of Cryptococcosis. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 60 12, 7115-7127

Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo; Del Poeta, Maurizio 2015. Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids. mBio, 6 3, e00647

Porollo, Aleksey; Sesterhenn, Thomas M; Collins, Margaret S; Welge, Jeffrey A; Cushion, Melanie T 2014. Comparative genomics of pneumocystis species suggests the absence of genes for myo-inositol synthesis and reliance on inositol transport and metabolism. mBio, 5 6, e01834

Cushion, Melanie T; Keely, Scott P 2013. Assembly and annotation of Pneumocystis jirovecii from the human lung microbiome. mBio, 4 2, e00224

Linke, Michael J; Ashbaugh, Alan; Collins, Margaret S; Lynch, Keeley; Cushion, Melanie T 2013. Characterization of a distinct host response profile to Pneumocystis murina asci during clearance of pneumocystis pneumonia. Infection and immunity, 81 3, 984-95

Lobo, Maria Luísa; Esteves, Francisco; de Sousa, Bruno; Cardoso, Fernando; Cushion, Melanie T; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga 2013. Therapeutic potential of caspofungin combined with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for pneumocystis pneumonia: a pilot study in mice. PloS one, 8 8, e70619

Maciejewska, Dorota; Zabinski, Jerzy; Ka?mierczak, Pawel; Rezler, Mateusz; Krassowska-?wiebocka, Barbara; Collins, Margaret S; Cushion, Melanie T 2012. Analogs of pentamidine as potential anti-Pneumocystis chemotherapeutics. European journal of medicinal chemistry, 48 , 164-73

Porollo, Aleksey; Meller, Jaroslaw; Joshi, Yogesh; Jaiswal, Vikash; Smulian, A George; Cushion, Melanie T 2012. Analysis of current antifungal agents and their targets within the Pneumocystis carinii genome. Current drug targets, 13 12, 1575-85

Sinai, Anthony P; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Ward, Honorine; Weiss, Louis M; Cushion, Melanie T 2012. The state of research for AIDS-associated opportunistic infections and the importance of sustaining smaller research communities. Eukaryotic cell, 11 2, 90-7

Cushion, Melanie T; Collins, Margaret S 2011. Susceptibility of Pneumocystis to echinocandins in suspension and biofilm cultures. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 55 10, 4513-8

Cushion, Melanie T 2010. Are members of the fungal genus pneumocystis (a) commensals; (b) opportunists; (c) pathogens; or (d) all of the above? PLoS pathogens, 6 9,

Cushion, Melanie T; Linke, Michael J; Ashbaugh, Alan; Sesterhenn, Tom; Collins, Margaret S; Lynch, Keeley; Brubaker, Ronald; Walzer, Peter D 2010. Echinocandin treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia in rodent models depletes cysts leaving trophic burdens that cannot transmit the infection. PloS one, 5 1, e8524

Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2010. Stealth and opportunism: alternative lifestyles of species in the fungal genus Pneumocystis. Annual review of microbiology, 64 , 431-52

Joffrion, Tiffany M; Collins, Margaret S; Sesterhenn, Thomas; Cushion, Melanie T 2010. Functional characterization and localization of Pneumocystis carinii lanosterol synthase. Eukaryotic cell, 9 1, 107-15

Joffrion, Tiffany M; Cushion, Melanie T 2010. Sterol biosynthesis and sterol uptake in the fungal pathogen Pneumocystis carinii. FEMS microbiology letters, 311 1, 1-9

Sesterhenn, Thomas M; Slaven, Bradley E; Keely, Scott P; Smulian, A George; Lang, B Franz; Cushion, Melanie T 2010. Sequence and structure of the linear mitochondrial genome of Pneumocystis carinii. Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG, 283 1, 63-72

Beck, James M; Cushion, Melanie T 2009. Pneumocystis workshop: 10th anniversary summary. Eukaryotic cell, 8 4, 446-60

Brubaker, R; Redhead, S A; Stringer, J R; Keely, S P; Cushion, M T 2009. Misinformation about Pneumocystis. Clinical and experimental dermatology, 34 7, e426-7

Cushion, Melanie T; Collins, Margaret S; Linke, Michael J 2009. Biofilm formation by Pneumocystis spp. Eukaryotic cell, 8 2, 197-206

Cushion, Melanie T; Walzer, Peter D 2009. Preclinical drug discovery for new anti-pneumocystis compounds. Current medicinal chemistry, 16 20, 2514-30

Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Collins, Margaret S; Cushion, Melanie T; Rattendi, Donna; Londono, Indira; Mazumder, Lakshman; Bacchi, Cyrus J; Yarlett, Nigel 2009. Synthesis and SAR of alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines with anti-trypanosomal and anti-pneumocystis activity. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 19 20, 5884-6

Liu, Yu; Leigh, Jessica W; Brinkmann, Henner; Cushion, Melanie T; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Philippe, Hervé; Lang, B Franz 2009. Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Taphrinomycotina, including Schizosaccharomyces fission yeasts. Molecular biology and evolution, 26 1, 27-34

Vale, Nuno; Prudêncio, Miguel; Marques, Catarina A; Collins, Margaret S; Gut, Jiri; Nogueira, Fátima; Matos, Joana; Rosenthal, Philip J; Cushion, Melanie T; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Mota, Maria M; Moreira, Rui; Gomes, Paula 2009. Imidazoquines as antimalarial and antipneumocystis agents. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 52 23, 7800-7

Mayence, Annie; Pietka, Aurélie; Collins, Margaret S; Cushion, Melanie T; Tekwani, Babu L; Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques 2008. Novel bisbenzimidazoles with antileishmanial effectiveness. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 18 8, 2658-61

Vale, Nuno; Collins, Margaret S; Gut, Jiri; Ferraz, Ricardo; Rosenthal, Philip J; Cushion, Melanie T; Moreira, Rui; Gomes, Paula 2008. Anti-Pneumocystis carinii and antiplasmodial activities of primaquine-derived imidazolidin-4-ones. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 18 2, 485-8

Cushion, Melanie T; Smulian, A George; Slaven, Bradley E; Sesterhenn, Tom; Arnold, Jonathan; Staben, Chuck; Porollo, Aleksey; Adamczak, Rafal; Meller, Jarek 2007. Transcriptome of Pneumocystis carinii during fulminate infection: carbohydrate metabolism and the concept of a compatible parasite. PloS one, 2 5, e423

Cushion,M.T.; Smulian,A.G.; Slaven,B.E.; Sesterhenn,T.; Arnold,J.; Staben,C.; Porollo,A.; Adamczak,R.; Meller,J. 2007. Transcriptome of Pneumocystis carinii during fulminate infection: carbohydrate metabolism and the concept of a compatible parasite PLoS ONE, 2 , e423

Keely, Scott P; Linke, Michael J; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2007. Pneumocystis murina MSG gene family and the structure of the locus associated with its transcription. Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 44 9, 905-19

Keely,S.P.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 2007. Pneumocystis murina MSG gene family and the structure of the locus associated with its transcription Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, ,

Keely,S.P.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 2007. Pneumocystis murina MSG gene family and the structure of the locus associated with its transcription Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B, 44 9, 905

Tachado, Souvenir D; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhu, Jinping; Patel, Naimish; Cushion, Melanie; Koziel, Henry 2007. Pneumocystis-mediated IL-8 release by macrophages requires coexpression of mannose receptors and TLR2. Journal of leukocyte biology, 81 1, 205-11

Cushion, Melanie T; Smulian, A George 2006. Pneumocystis 2006: summary of the research presented at the ninth International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S80-4

Cushion, Melanie T; Walzer, Peter D; Ashbaugh, Alan; Rebholz, Sandra; Brubaker, Ronald; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L 2006. In vitro selection and in vivo efficacy of piperazine- and alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines against Pneumocystis pneumonia in mice. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 50 7, 2337-43

Cushion,M.T.; Smulian,A.G. 2006. Pneumocystis 2006: summary of the research presented at the ninth International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S80

Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D.; Ashbaugh,A.; Rebholz,S.; Brubaker,R.; Vanden Eynde,J.J.; Mayence,A.; Huang,T.L. 2006. In vitro selection and in vivo efficacy of piperazine- and alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines against Pneumocystis pneumonia in mice Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 50 7, 2337

Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Chabé, Magali; Moukhlis, Raya; Durand-Joly, Isabelle; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Stringer, James R; Cushion, Melanie; Noël, Christophe; de Hoog, G Sybren; Guillot, Jacques; Viscogliosi, Eric 2006. Pneumocystis oryctolagi sp. nov., an uncultured fungus causing pneumonia in rabbits at weaning: review of current knowledge, and description of a new taxon on genotypic, phylogenetic and phenotypic bases. FEMS microbiology reviews, 30 6, 853-71

Icenhour, Crystal R; Arnold, Jonathan; Medvedovic, Mario; Cushion, Melanie T 2006. Competitive coexistence of two Pneumocystis species. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 6 3, 177-86

Icenhour,C.R.; Arnold,J.; Medvedovic,M.; Cushion,M.T. 2006. Competitive coexistence of two Pneumocystis species Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 6 3, 177

Joffrion, Tiffany M; Collins, Margaret S; Cushion, Melanie T 2006. Microaerophilic conditions increase viability and affect responses of Pneumocystis carinii to drugs in vitro. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S117-8

Joffrion,T.M.; Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T. 2006. Microaerophilic conditions increase viability and affect responses of Pneumocystis carinii to drugs in vitro The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S117

Kaneshiro, Edna S; Cali, Ann; Cushion, Melanie T; Lindsay, David S; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Mead, Jan R; Weiss, Louis M 2006. The International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S1-7

Redhead,S.A.; Cushion,M.T.; Frenkel,J.K.; Stringer,J.R. 2006. Pneumocystis and Trypanosoma cruzi: nomenclature and typifications The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 1, 2

Sesterhenn, Thomas M; Cushion, Melanie T; Slaven, Bradley E; Smulian, A George 2006. Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Pneumocystis carinii: implications for biological function and identification of potential drug targets. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S154-5

Sesterhenn,T.M.; Cushion,M.T.; Slaven,B.E.; Smulian,A.G. 2006. Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Pneumocystis carinii: implications for biological function and identification of potential drug targets The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S154

Slaven, Bradley E; Meller, Jaroslaw; Porollo, Aleksey; Sesterhenn, Thomas; Smulian, A George; Cushion, Melanie T 2006. Draft assembly and annotation of the Pneumocystis carinii genome. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S89-91

Slaven, Bradley E; Porollo, Aleksey; Sesterhenn, Thomas; Smulian, A George; Cushion, Melanie T; Meller, Jaroslaw 2006. Large-scale characterization of introns in the Pneumocystis carinii genome. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S151-3

Slaven,B.E.; Meller,J.; Porollo,A.; Sesterhenn,T.; Smulian,A.G.; Cushion,M.T. 2006. Draft assembly and annotation of the Pneumocystis carinii genome The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S89

Slaven,B.E.; Porollo,A.; Sesterhenn,T.; Smulian,A.G.; Cushion,M.T.; Meller,J. 2006. Large-scale characterization of introns in the Pneumocystis carinii genome The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 Suppl 1 , S151

Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2005. Has the name really been changed? It has for most researchers. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 41 12, 1756-8

Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 2005. Has the name really been changed? It has for most researchers Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 41 12, 1756

Keely, Scott P; Renauld, Hubert; Wakefield, Ann E; Cushion, Melanie T; Smulian, A George; Fosker, Nigel; Fraser, Audrey; Harris, David; Murphy, Lee; Price, Claire; Quail, Michael A; Seeger, Kathy; Sharp, Sarah; Tindal, Carolyn J; Warren, Tim; Zuiderwijk, Eduard; Barrell, Barclay G; Stringer, James R; Hall, Neil 2005. Gene arrays at Pneumocystis carinii telomeres. Genetics, 170 4, 1589-600

Keely,S.P.; Renauld,H.; Wakefield,A.E.; Cushion,M.T.; Smulian,A.G.; Fosker,N.; Fraser,A.; Harris,D.; Murphy,L.; Price,C.; Quail,M.A.; Seeger,K.; Sharp,S.; Tindal,C.J.; Warren,T.; Zuiderwijk,E.; Barrell,B.G.; Stringer,J.R.; Hall,N. 2005. Gene arrays at Pneumocystis carinii telomeres Genetics, 170 4, 1589

Peterson, J Chad; Cushion, Melanie T 2005. Pneumocystis: not just pneumonia. Current opinion in microbiology, 8 4, 393-8

Peterson,J.C.; Cushion,M.T. 2005. Pneumocystis: not just pneumonia Current opinion in microbiology, 8 4, 393

Zhang, Jianmin; Tachado, Souvenir D; Patel, Naimish; Zhu, Jinping; Imrich, Amy; Manfruelli, Pascal; Cushion, Melanie; Kinane, T Bernard; Koziel, Henry 2005. Negative regulatory role of mannose receptors on human alveolar macrophage proinflammatory cytokine release in vitro. Journal of leukocyte biology, 78 3, 665-74

Zhang, Jianmin; Zhu, Jinping; Bu, Xia; Cushion, Melanie; Kinane, T Bernard; Avraham, Hava; Koziel, Henry 2005. Cdc42 and RhoB activation are required for mannose receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human alveolar macrophages. Molecular biology of the cell, 16 2, 824-34

Cushion, Melanie T 2004. Pneumocystis: unraveling the cloak of obscurity. Trends in microbiology, 12 5, 243-9

Cushion, Melanie T; Walzer, Peter D; Collins, Margaret S; Rebholz, Sandra; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L 2004. Highly active anti-Pneumocystis carinii compounds in a library of novel piperazine-linked bisbenzamidines and related compounds. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 48 11, 4209-16

Cushion,M.T. 2004. Pneumocystis: unraveling the cloak of obscurity Trends in microbiology, 12 5, 243

Cushion,M.T. 2004. Comparative genomics of Pneumocystis carinii with other protists: implications for life style The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 51 1, 30

Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D.; Collins,M.S.; Rebholz,S.; Vanden Eynde,J.J.; Mayence,A.; Huang,T.L. 2004. Highly active anti-Pneumocystis carinii compounds in a library of novel piperazine-linked bisbenzamidines and related compounds Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 48 11, 4209

Keely, Scott P; Fischer, Jared M; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2004. Phylogenetic identification of Pneumocystis murina sp. nov., a new species in laboratory mice. Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 5, 1153-65

Keely,S.P.; Fischer,J.M.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 2004. Phylogenetic identification of Pneumocystis murina sp. nov., a new species in laboratory mice Microbiology (Reading, England), 150 Pt 5, 1153

Mayence, Annie; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Krogstad, Fran M; Krogstad, Donald J; Cushion, Melanie T; Huang, Tien L 2004. Parallel solution-phase synthesis of conformationally restricted congeners of pentamidine and evaluation of their antiplasmodial activities. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 47 10, 2700-5

Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Collins, Margaret S; Rebholz, Sandra; Walzer, Peter D; Cushion, Melanie T 2004. Novel bisbenzamidines as potential drug candidates for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 14 17, 4545-8

Vanden Eynde,J.J.; Mayence,A.; Huang,T.L.; Collins,M.S.; Rebholz,S.; Walzer,P.D.; Cushion,M.T. 2004. Novel bisbenzamidines as potential drug candidates for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 14 17, 4545

Zhang, Jianmin; Zhu, Jinping; Imrich, Amy; Cushion, Melanie; Kinane, T Bernard; Koziel, Henry 2004. Pneumocystis activates human alveolar macrophage NF-kappaB signaling through mannose receptors. Infection and immunity, 72 6, 3147-60

Collins, Margaret S; Bansil, Sandeep; Cushion, Melanie T 2003. Expression profiling of the responses of Pneumocystis carinii to drug treatment using DNA macroarrays. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 605-6

Collins,M.S.; Bansil,S.; Cushion,M.T. 2003. Expression profiling of the responses of Pneumocystis carinii to drug treatment using DNA macroarrays The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 605

Keely, Scott P; Cushion, Melanie T; Stringer, James R 2003. Diversity at the locus associated with transcription of a variable surface antigen of Pneumocystis carinii as an index of population structure and dynamics in infected rats. Infection and immunity, 71 1, 47-60

Keely,S.P.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 2003. Diversity at the locus associated with transcription of a variable surface antigen of Pneumocystis carinii as an index of population structure and dynamics in infected rats Infection and immunity, 71 1, 47

Linke, Michael J; Rebholz, Sandy; Collins, Margaret; Tanaka, Reiko; Cushion, Melanie T 2003. Noninvasive method for monitoring Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Emerging infectious diseases, 9 12, 1613-6

Linke,M.J.; Rebholz,S.; Collins,M.; Tanaka,R.; Cushion,M.T. 2003. Noninvasive method for monitoring Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Emerging infectious diseases, 9 12, 1613

Sesterhenn, Thomas M; Slaven, Bradley E; Smulian, A George; Cushion, Melanie T 2003. Generation of sequencing libraries for the Pneumocystis Genome project. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 663-5

Sesterhenn,T.M.; Slaven,B.E.; Smulian,A.G.; Cushion,M.T. 2003. Generation of sequencing libraries for the Pneumocystis Genome project The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 50 Suppl , 663

Xu, Zheng; Lance, Britton; Vargas, Claudia; Arpinar, Budak; Bhandarkar, Suchendra; Kraemer, Eileen; Kochut, Krys J; Miller, John A; Wagner, Jeff R; Weise, Michael J; Wunderlich, John K; Stringer, James; Smulian, George; Cushion, Melanie T; Arnold, Jonathan 2003. Mapping by sequencing the Pneumocystis genome using the ordering DNA sequences V3 tool. Genetics, 163 4, 1299-313

Xu,Z.; Lance,B.; Vargas,C.; Arpinar,B.; Bhandarkar,S.; Kraemer,E.; Kochut,K.J.; Miller,J.A.; Wagner,J.R.; Weise,M.J.; Wunderlich,J.K.; Stringer,J.; Smulian,G.; Cushion,M.T.; Arnold,J. 2003. Mapping by sequencing the Pneumocystis genome using the ordering DNA sequences V3 tool Genetics, 163 4, 1299

Cornillot, Emmanuel; Keller, Brian; Cushion, Melanie T; Méténier, Guy; Vivarès, Christian P 2002. Fine analysis of the Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii genome by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Gene, 293 1-2, 87-95

Cornillot,E.; Keller,B.; Cushion,M.T.; Metenier,G.; Vivares,C.P. 2002. Fine analysis of the Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii genome by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Gene, 293 1-2, 87

De Lucca, A J; Bland, J M; Vigo, C B; Cushion, M; Selitrennikoff, C P; Peter, J; Walsh, T J 2002. CAY-I, a fungicidal saponin from Capsicum sp. fruit. Medical mycology, 40 2, 131-7

Icenhour, Crystal R; Rebholz, Sandra L; Collins, Margaret S; Cushion, Melanie T 2002. Early acquisition of Pneumocystis carinii in neonatal rats as evidenced by PCR and oral swabs. Eukaryotic cell, 1 3, 414-9

Icenhour,C.R.; Rebholz,S.L.; Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T. 2002. Early acquisition of Pneumocystis carinii in neonatal rats as evidenced by PCR and oral swabs Eukaryotic cell, 1 3, 414

Zhou, Wenxu; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Minh; Collins, Margaret S; Cushion, Melanie T; Nes, W David 2002. Evidence for multiple sterol methyl transferase pathways in Pneumocystis carinii. Lipids, 37 12, 1177-86

Zhou,W.; Nguyen,T.T.; Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T.; Nes,W.D. 2002. Evidence for multiple sterol methyl transferase pathways in Pneumocystis carinii Lipids, 37 12, 1177

Collins, M S; Cushion, M T 2001. Standardization of an in vitro drug screening assay by use of cryopreserved and characterized Pneumocystis carinii populations. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 178S-179S

Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. Standardization of an in vitro drug screening assay by use of cryopreserved and characterized Pneumocystis carinii populations The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 178S

Cushion, M T; Beck, J M 2001. Summary of Pneumocystis research presented at the 7th International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 101S-105S

Cushion, M T; Orr, S; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R 2001. Time between inoculations and karyotype forms of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii influence outcome of experimental coinfections in rats. Infection and immunity, 69 1, 97-107

Cushion, M T; Smulian, A G 2001. The pneumocystis genome project: update and issues. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 182S-183S

Cushion,M.T.; Beck,J.M. 2001. Summary of Pneumocystis research presented at the 7th International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 101S

Cushion,M.T.; Orr,S.; Keely,S.P.; Stringer,J.R. 2001. Time between inoculations and karyotype forms of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii influence outcome of experimental coinfections in rats Infection and immunity, 69 1, 97

Cushion,M.T.; Smulian,A.G. 2001. The pneumocystis genome project: update and issues The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 182S

Icenhour, C R; Cushion, M T 2001. Putative transmissive form of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 139S-140S

Icenhour, C R; Rebholz, S L; Collins, M S; Cushion, M T 2001. Widespread occurrence of Pneumocystis carinii in commercial rat colonies detected using targeted PCR and oral swabs. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39 10, 3437-41

Icenhour, C R; Rebholz, S L; Collins, M S; Cushion, M T 2001. Early acquisition of Pneumocystis carinii in neonatal rats using targeted PCR and oral swabs. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 135S-136S

Icenhour,C.R.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. Putative transmissive form of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 139S

Icenhour,C.R.; Rebholz,S.L.; Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. Early acquisition of Pneumocystis carinii in neonatal rats using targeted PCR and oral swabs The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 135S

Icenhour,C.R.; Rebholz,S.L.; Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. Widespread occurrence of Pneumocystis carinii in commercial rat colonies detected using targeted PCR and oral swabs Journal of clinical microbiology, 39 10, 3437

Keely, S P; Wakefield, A E; Cushion, M T; Smulian, A G; Hall, N; Barrell, B G; Stringer, J R 2001. Detailed structure of Pneumocystis carinii chromosome ends. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 118S-120S

Keely,S.P.; Wakefield,A.E.; Cushion,M.T.; Smulian,A.G.; Hall,N.; Barrell,B.G.; Stringer,J.R. 2001. Detailed structure of Pneumocystis carinii chromosome ends The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 118S

Nahimana, A; Cushion, M T; Blanc, D S; Hauser, P M 2001. Rapid PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method to differentiate and estimate relative abundance of Pneumocystis carinii special forms infecting rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 39 12, 4563-5

Nahimana,A.; Cushion,M.T.; Blanc,D.S.; Hauser,P.M. 2001. Rapid PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method to differentiate and estimate relative abundance of Pneumocystis carinii special forms infecting rats Journal of clinical microbiology, 39 12, 4563

Rebholz, S L; Cushion, M T 2001. Three new karyotype forms of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii identified by contoured clamped homogeneous electrical field (CHEF) electrophoresis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 109S-110S

Rebholz,S.L.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. Three new karyotype forms of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii identified by contoured clamped homogeneous electrical field (CHEF) electrophoresis The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 109S

Smulian, A G; Sesterhenn, T; Tanaka, R; Cushion, M T 2001. The ste3 pheromone receptor gene of Pneumocystis carinii is surrounded by a cluster of signal transduction genes. Genetics, 157 3, 991-1002

Smulian,A.G.; Sesterhenn,T.; Tanaka,R.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. The ste3 pheromone receptor gene of Pneumocystis carinii is surrounded by a cluster of signal transduction genes Genetics, 157 3, 991

Stringer, J R; Cushion, M T; Wakefield, A E 2001. New nomenclature for the genus Pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 184S-189S

Stringer,J.R.; Cushion,M.T.; Wakefield,A.E. 2001. New nomenclature for the genus Pneumocystis The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, Suppl , 184S

Walzer, P D; Ashbaugh, A; Collins, M; Cushion, M T 2001. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs are ineffective against Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and in vivo. The Journal of infectious diseases, 184 10, 1355-7

Walzer, P D; Ashbaugh, A; Collins, M; Cushion, M T 2001. In vitro and in vivo effects of quinupristin-dalfopristin against Pneumocystis carinii. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 45 11, 3234-7

Walzer,P.D.; Ashbaugh,A.; Collins,M.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs are ineffective against Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and in vivo The Journal of infectious diseases, 184 10, 1355

Walzer,P.D.; Ashbaugh,A.; Collins,M.; Cushion,M.T. 2001. In vitro and in vivo effects of quinupristin-dalfopristin against Pneumocystis carinii Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 45 11, 3234

Cushion, M T; Collins, M; Hazra, B; Kaneshiro, E S 2000. Effects of atovaquone and diospyrin-based drugs on the cellular ATP of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 44 3, 713-9

Cushion,M.T.; Collins,M.; Hazra,B.; Kaneshiro,E.S. 2000. Effects of atovaquone and diospyrin-based drugs on the cellular ATP of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 44 3, 713

Kaneshiro, E S; Collins, M S; Cushion, M T 2000. Inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis and amphotericin B reduce the viability of pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 44 6, 1630-8

Kaneshiro,E.S.; Collins,M.S.; Cushion,M.T. 2000. Inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis and amphotericin B reduce the viability of pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 44 6, 1630

Cushion,M.T. 1999. Summary of the Pneumocystis research presented at the 6th International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 85S

Cushion,M.T.; Linke,M.J.; Collins,M.; Keely,S.P.; Stringer,J.R. 1999. The minimum number of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii organisms required to establish infections is very low The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 111S

Icenhour,C.R.; Arnold,J.; Cushion,M.T. 1999. Interactions of two Pneumocystis carinii populations within rat lungs The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 107S

Kaneshiro,E.S.; Collins,M.; Cushion,M.T. 1999. Effects of sterol inhibitors on the ATP content of Pneumocystis carinii The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 142S

Keely,S.P.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 1999. Determination of the maximum frequency of genetic rearrangements associated with Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen variation The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 128S

Palmer, R J; Cushion, M T; Wakefield, A E 1999. Discrimination of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii and Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Ratti using the polymerase chain reaction. Molecular and cellular probes, 13 2, 147-55

Palmer,R.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Wakefield,A.E. 1999. Discrimination of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii and Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Ratti using the polymerase chain reaction Molecular and cellular probes, 13 2, 147

Weisbroth, S H; Geistfeld, J; Weisbroth, S P; Williams, B; Feldman, S H; Linke, M J; Orr, S; Cushion, M T 1999. Latent Pneumocystis carinii infection in commercial rat colonies: comparison of inductive immunosuppressants plus histopathology, PCR, and serology as detection methods. Journal of clinical microbiology, 37 5, 1441-6

Weisbroth,S.H.; Geistfeld,J.; Weisbroth,S.P.; Williams,B.; Feldman,S.H.; Linke,M.J.; Orr,S.; Cushion,M.T. 1999. Latent Pneumocystis carinii infection in commercial rat colonies: comparison of inductive immunosuppressants plus histopathology, PCR, and serology as detection methods Journal of clinical microbiology, 37 5, 1441

Cushion, M T 1998. Taxonomy, genetic organization, and life cycle of Pneumocystis carinii. Seminars in respiratory infections, 13 4, 304-12

Cushion, M T 1998. Genetic heterogeneity of rat-derived Pneumocystis. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 22 1-2, 51-8

Cushion,M.T. 1998. Taxonomy, genetic organization, and life cycle of Pneumocystis carinii Seminars in respiratory infections, 13 4, 304

Cushion,M.T. 1998. Genetic heterogeneity of rat-derived Pneumocystis FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 22 1-2, 51

Stringer, J R; Cushion, M T 1998. The genome of Pneumocystis carinii. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 22 1-2, 15-26

Stringer,J.R.; Cushion,M.T. 1998. The genome of Pneumocystis carinii FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, 22 1-2, 15

Arnold,J.; Cushion,M.T. 1997. Constructing a physical map of the Pneumocystis genome The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 8S

Beach, D H; Chen, F; Cushion, M T; Macomber, R S; Krudy, G A; Wyder, M A; Kaneshiro, E S 1997. Effects of steroidal allenic phosphonic acid derivatives on the parasitic protists Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana mexicana, and Pneumocystis carinii carinii. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 41 1, 162-8

Beach,D.H.; Chen,F.; Cushion,M.T.; Macomber,R.S.; Krudy,G.A.; Wyder,M.A.; Kaneshiro,E.S. 1997. Effects of steroidal allenic phosphonic acid derivatives on the parasitic protists Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana mexicana, and Pneumocystis carinii carinii Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 41 1, 162

Cushion, M T; Chen, F; Kloepfer, N 1997. A cytotoxicity assay for evaluation of candidate anti-Pneumocystis carinii agents. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 41 2, 379-84

Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Smulian, A G; Linke, M J; Ruffolo, J J; Kaneshiro, E S; Stringer, J R 1997. Terminology for the life cycle of Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 65 10, 4365; author reply 4

Cushion,M.T.; Arnold,J. 1997. Proposal for a Pneumocystis genome project The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 7S

Cushion,M.T.; Chen,F.; Kloepfer,N. 1997. A cytotoxicity assay for evaluation of candidate anti-Pneumocystis carinii agents Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 41 2, 379

Cushion,M.T.; Orr,S.; Arnold,J. 1997. Interactions between 2 Pneumocystis populations within the same host The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 9S

Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D.; Smulian,A.G.; Linke,M.J.; Ruffolo,J.J.; Kaneshiro,E.S.; Stringer,J.R. 1997. Terminology for the life cycle of Pneumocystis carinii Infection and immunity, 65 10, 4365; author reply 4366

Perlada, D E; Smulian, A G; Cushion, M T 1997. Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci in Cincinnati, Ohio: a prospective citywide survey. Journal of clinical microbiology, 35 9, 2342-7

Stringer,J.R.; Wakefield,A.E.; Cushion,M.T.; Dei-Cas,E. 1997. Pneumocystis taxonomy and nomenclature: an update The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 5S

Cushion,M.T.; Orr,S. 1996. Kinetics of 2 genetically distinct Pneumocystis carinii populations in rat colonies The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 46S

Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1996. Closing comments: a retrospective perspective 4th International Workshop on Pneumocystis The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 60S

Keely,S.P.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 1996. Stability of four genetic loci in Pneumocystis carinii sp. f. carinii The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 49S

Smulian, A G; Ryan, M; Staben, C; Cushion, M 1996. Signal transduction in Pneumocystis carinii: characterization of the genes (pcg1) encoding the alpha subunit of the G protein (PCG1) of Pneumocystis carinii carinii and Pneumocystis carinii ratti. Infection and immunity, 64 3, 691-701

Vasquez, J; Smulian, A G; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T 1996. Antigenic differences associated with genetically distinct Pneumocystis carinii from rats. Infection and immunity, 64 1, 290-7

Vasquez,J.; Smulian,A.G.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1996. Antigenic differences associated with genetically distinct Pneumocystis carinii from rats Infection and immunity, 64 1, 290

O'Leary, T J; Tsai, M M; Wright, C F; Cushion, M T 1995. Use of semiquantitative PCR to assess onset and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii infection in rat model. Journal of clinical microbiology, 33 3, 718-24

O'Leary,T.J.; Tsai,M.M.; Wright,C.F.; Cushion,M.T. 1995. Use of semiquantitative PCR to assess onset and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii infection in rat model Journal of clinical microbiology, 33 3, 718

Andrews,R.P.; Theus,S.A.; Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1994. Comparison of the antigenic recognition of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii isolated from different rat strains The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 72S

Chen, F; Cushion, M T 1994. Use of an ATP bioluminescent assay to evaluate viability of Pneumocystis carinii from rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 32 11, 2791-800

Chen,F.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. Use of an ATP bioluminescent assay to evaluate viability of Pneumocystis carinii from rats Journal of clinical microbiology, 32 11, 2791

Chen,F.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. Use of fluorescent probes to investigate the metabolic state of Pneumocystis carinii mitochondria The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 79S

Cushion, M T; Harmsen, A; Matsumoto, Y; Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E; Yamada, M 1994. Recent advances in the biology of Pneumocystis carinii. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 32 Suppl 1 , 217-28

Cushion,M.T.; Harmsen,A.; Matsumoto,Y.; Stringer,J.R.; Wakefield,A.E.; Yamada,M. 1994. Recent advances in the biology of Pneumocystis carinii Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 32 Suppl 1 , 217

De Stefano, J A; Foy, J M; Sullivan, D W; Dawes, S M; Cushion, M T; Babcock, G F; Sleight, R G; van Halbeek, H; Walzer, P D 1994. Fractionation of Pneumocystis carinii developmental stages by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and sequential filtrations. Parasitology research, 80 1, 1-9

De Stefano,J.A.; Foy,J.M.; Sullivan,D.W.; Dawes,S.M.; Cushion,M.T.; Babcock,G.F.; Sleight,R.G.; van Halbeek,H.; Walzer,P.D. 1994. Fractionation of Pneumocystis carinii developmental stages by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and sequential filtrations Parasitology research, 80 1, 1

Langreth,S.G.; Kim,G.M.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. Evaluation of procedures used to isolate Pneumocystis carinii from infected rat lungs The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 95S

Settnes,O.P.; Nielsen,P.B.; Bucala,R.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. A survey of birds in Denmark for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii Avian Diseases, 38 1, 1

Smulian, A G; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T; Baughman, R P; Frame, P T; Dohn, M N; White, M L; Walzer, P D 1994. Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii organism burden, viability and antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in AIDS patients with pneumocystosis: correlation with disease severity. AIDS (London, England), 8 11, 1555-62

Smulian,A.G.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Baughman,R.P.; Frame,P.T.; Dohn,M.N.; White,M.L.; Walzer,P.D. 1994. Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii organism burden, viability and antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in AIDS patients with pneumocystosis: correlation with disease severity AIDS (London, England), 8 11, 1555

Vasquez,J.; Smulian,A.G.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. Antigenic differences among genetically distinct types of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 114S

Weinberg,G.A.; Dykstra,C.C.; Durant,P.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. Chromosomal localization of 20 genes to five distinct pulsed field gel karyotypic forms of rat Pneumocystis carinii The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 117S

Weinberg,G.A.; O'Gara,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1994. Coinfection of rats with genetically diverse forms of Pneumocystis carinii demonstrated by P. carinii inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase gene polymorphism The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 119S

Cushion, M T; Kaselis, M; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1993. Genetic stability and diversity of Pneumocystis carinii infecting rat colonies. Infection and immunity, 61 11, 4801-13

Cushion, M T; Zhang, J; Kaselis, M; Giuntoli, D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1993. Evidence for two genetic variants of Pneumocystis carinii coinfecting laboratory rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 5, 1217-23

Cushion,M.T.; Kaselis,M.; Stringer,S.L.; Stringer,J.R. 1993. Genetic stability and diversity of Pneumocystis carinii infecting rat colonies Infection and immunity, 61 11, 4801

Cushion,M.T.; Zhang,J.; Kaselis,M.; Giuntoli,D.; Stringer,S.L.; Stringer,J.R. 1993. Evidence for two genetic variants of Pneumocystis carinii coinfecting laboratory rats Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 5, 1217

Stringer,J.R.; Stringer,S.L.; Zhang,J.; Baughman,R.; Smulian,A.G.; Cushion,M.T. 1993. Molecular genetic distinction of Pneumocystis carinii from rats and humans The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 6, 733

Zhang, J; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R 1993. Molecular characterization of a novel repetitive element from Pneumocystis carinii from rats. Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 2, 244-8

Zhang,J.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 1993. Molecular characterization of a novel repetitive element from Pneumocystis carinii from rats Journal of clinical microbiology, 31 2, 244

De Stefano, J A; Trinkle, L S; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T 1992. Flow cytometric analyses of lectin binding to Pneumocystis carinii surface carbohydrates. The Journal of parasitology, 78 2, 271-80

De Stefano,J.A.; Trinkle,L.S.; Walzer,P.D.; Cushion,M.T. 1992. Flow cytometric analyses of lectin binding to Pneumocystis carinii surface carbohydrates The Journal of parasitology, 78 2, 271

Stringer, J R; Edman, J C; Cushion, M T; Richards, F F; Watanabe, J 1992. The fungal nature of Pneumocystis. Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 30 Suppl 1 , 271-8

Stringer,J.R.; Edman,J.C.; Cushion,M.T.; Richards,F.F.; Watanabe,J. 1992. The fungal nature of Pneumocystis Journal of medical and veterinary mycology : bi-monthly publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, 30 Suppl 1 , 271

Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R; Walzer, P D 1991. Cellular and molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii. International review of cytology, 131 , 59-107

Cushion,M.T.; Linke,M.J. 1991. Factors influencing Pneumocystis infection in the immunocompromised rat The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 133S

Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R.; Walzer,P.D. 1991. Cellular and molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii International review of cytology, 131 , 59

Kaneshiro,E.S.; Wu,Y.P.; Cushion,M.T. 1991. Assays for testing Pneumocystis carinii viability The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 85S

Zhang,J.X.; Cushion,M.T.; Giuntoli,D.; Hong,S.T.; Meade,J.C.; Smulian,A.G.; Stringer,S.L.; Stringer,J.J. 1991. Analysis of the Pneumocystis carinii genome The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 69S

Cushion, M T; Ebbets, D 1990. Growth and metabolism of Pneumocystis carinii in axenic culture. Journal of clinical microbiology, 28 6, 1385-94

Cushion, M T; Hong, S T; Steele, P E; Stringer, S L; Walzer, P D; Stringer, J R 1990. Molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 616 , 415-20

Cushion,M.T.; Ebbets,D. 1990. Growth and metabolism of Pneumocystis carinii in axenic culture Journal of clinical microbiology, 28 6, 1385

Cushion,M.T.; Hong,S.T.; Steele,P.E.; Stringer,S.L.; Walzer,P.D.; Stringer,J.R. 1990. Molecular biology of Pneumocystis carinii Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 616 , 415

De Stefano,J.A.; Cushion,M.T.; Puvanesarajah,V.; Walzer,P.D. 1990. Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii cyst wall. II. Sugar composition The Journal of protozoology, 37 5, 436

De Stefano,J.A.; Cushion,M.T.; Sleight,R.G.; Walzer,P.D. 1990. Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii cyst wall. I. Evidence for an outer surface membrane The Journal of protozoology, 37 5, 428

Hong, S T; Steele, P E; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R 1990. Pneumocystis carinii karyotypes. Journal of clinical microbiology, 28 8, 1785-95

Hong,S.T.; Steele,P.E.; Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D.; Stringer,S.L.; Stringer,J.R. 1990. Pneumocystis carinii karyotypes Journal of clinical microbiology, 28 8, 1785

Cushion,M.T. 1989. In vitro studies of Pneumocystis carinii The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 45

Cushion,M.T.; Blase,M.A.; Walzer,P.D. 1989. A method for isolation of RNA from Pneumocystis carinii The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 12S

De Stefano,J.A.; Cushion,M.T.; Trinkle,L.S.; Walzer,P.D. 1989. Lectins as probes to Pneumocystis carinii surface glycocomplexes The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 65S

Kaneshiro,E.S.; Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D.; Jayasimhulu,K. 1989. Analyses of Pneumocystis fatty acids The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 69S

Linke, M J; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D 1989. Properties of the major antigens of rat and human Pneumocystis carinii. Infection and immunity, 57 5, 1547-55

Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1989. Properties of the major antigens of rat and human Pneumocystis carinii Infection and immunity, 57 5, 1547

Ruffolo,J.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1989. Ultrastructural observations on life cycle stages of Pneumocystis carinii The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 53S

Stringer, S L; Stringer, J R; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T 1989. Pneumocystis carinii: sequence from ribosomal RNA implies a close relationship with fungi. Experimental parasitology, 68 4, 450-61

Stringer,S.L.; Hudson,K.; Blase,M.A.; Walzer,P.D.; Cushion,M.T.; Stringer,J.R. 1989. Sequence from ribosomal RNA of Pneumocystis carinii compared to those of four fungi suggests an ascomycetous affinity The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 14S

Stringer,S.L.; Stringer,J.R.; Blase,M.A.; Walzer,P.D.; Cushion,M.T. 1989. Pneumocystis carinii: sequence from ribosomal RNA implies a close relationship with fungi Experimental parasitology, 68 4, 450

Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T 1989. Immunobiology of Pneumocystis carinii. Pathology and immunopathology research, 8 3-4, 127-40

Walzer,P.D.; Cushion,M.T. 1989. Immunobiology of Pneumocystis carinii Pathology and immunopathology research, 8 3-4, 127

Cushion, M T; DeStefano, J A; Walzer, P D 1988. Pneumocystis carinii: surface reactive carbohydrates detected by lectin probes. Experimental parasitology, 67 2, 137-47

Cushion, M T; Ruffolo, J J; Walzer, P D 1988. Analysis of the developmental stages of Pneumocystis carinii, in vitro. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 58 3, 324-31

Cushion,M.T.; DeStefano,J.A.; Walzer,P.D. 1988. Pneumocystis carinii: surface reactive carbohydrates detected by lectin probes Experimental parasitology, 67 2, 137

Cushion,M.T.; Ruffolo,J.J.; Walzer,P.D. 1988. Analysis of the developmental stages of Pneumocystis carinii, in vitro Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 58 3, 324

Walzer, P D; Kim, C K; Foy, J M; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T 1988. Inhibitors of folic acid synthesis in the treatment of experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 32 1, 96-103

Walzer, P D; Kim, C K; Foy, J; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T 1988. Cationic antitrypanosomal and other antimicrobial agents in the therapy of experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 32 6, 896-905

Walzer,P.D.; Kim,C.K.; Foy,J.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1988. Cationic antitrypanosomal and other antimicrobial agents in the therapy of experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 32 6, 896

Walzer,P.D.; Kim,C.K.; Foy,J.M.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1988. Inhibitors of folic acid synthesis in the treatment of experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 32 1, 96

Kim, C K; Foy, J M; Cushion, M T; Stanforth, D; Linke, M J; Hendrix, H L; Walzer, P D 1987. Comparison of histologic and quantitative techniques in evaluation of therapy for experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 31 2, 197-201

Kim,C.K.; Foy,J.M.; Cushion,M.T.; Stanforth,D.; Linke,M.J.; Hendrix,H.L.; Walzer,P.D. 1987. Comparison of histologic and quantitative techniques in evaluation of therapy for experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 31 2, 197

Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T; Juranek, D; Walls, K; Armstrong, D; Gold, J; Young, L S; Pesanti, E; Graves, D C; Ivey, M B 1987. Serology and P carinii. Chest, 91 6, 935-6

Walzer, P D; Stanforth, D; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T 1987. Pneumocystis carinii: immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analyses of serum antibodies during experimental rat infection and recovery. Experimental parasitology, 63 3, 319-28

Walzer,P.D.; Cushion,M.T.; Juranek,D.; Walls,K.; Armstrong,D.; Gold,J.; Young,L.S.; Pesanti,E.; Graves,D.C.; Ivey,M.B. 1987. Serology and P carinii Chest, 91 6, 935

Walzer,P.D.; Stanforth,D.; Linke,M.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1987. Pneumocystis carinii: immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analyses of serum antibodies during experimental rat infection and recovery Experimental parasitology, 63 3, 319

Ruffolo, J J; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D 1986. Techniques for examining Pneumocystis carinii in fresh specimens. Journal of clinical microbiology, 23 1, 17-21

Ruffolo,J.J.; Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1986. Techniques for examining Pneumocystis carinii in fresh specimens Journal of clinical microbiology, 23 1, 17

Cushion, M T; Ruffolo, J J; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D 1985. Pneumocystis carinii: growth variables and estimates in the A549 and WI-38 VA13 human cell lines. Experimental parasitology, 60 1, 43-54

Cushion, M T; Stanforth, D; Linke, M J; Walzer, P D 1985. Method of testing the susceptibility of Pneumocystis carinii to antimicrobial agents in vitro. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 28 6, 796-801

Cushion,M.T.; Ruffolo,J.J.; Linke,M.J.; Walzer,P.D. 1985. Pneumocystis carinii: growth variables and estimates in the A549 and WI-38 VA13 human cell lines Experimental parasitology, 60 1, 43

Cushion,M.T.; Stanforth,D.; Linke,M.J.; Walzer,P.D. 1985. Method of testing the susceptibility of Pneumocystis carinii to antimicrobial agents in vitro Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 28 6, 796

Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D 1984. Growth and serial passage of Pneumocystis carinii in the A549 cell line. Infection and immunity, 44 2, 245-51

Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D 1984. Cultivation of Pneumocystis carinii in lung-derived cell lines. The Journal of infectious diseases, 149 4, 644

Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1984. Growth and serial passage of Pneumocystis carinii in the A549 cell line Infection and immunity, 44 2, 245

Cushion,M.T.; Walzer,P.D. 1984. Cultivation of Pneumocystis carinii in lung-derived cell lines The Journal of infectious diseases, 149 4, 644

Walzer, P D; LaBine, M; Redington, T J; Cushion, M T 1984. Predisposing factors in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: effects of tetracycline, protein malnutrition, and corticosteroids on hosts. Infection and immunity, 46 3, 747-53

Walzer, P D; LaBine, M; Redington, T J; Cushion, M T 1984. Lymphocyte changes during chronic administration of and withdrawal from corticosteroids: relation to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 133 5, 2502-8

Walzer,P.D.; LaBine,M.; Redington,T.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1984. Predisposing factors in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: effects of tetracycline, protein malnutrition, and corticosteroids on hosts Infection and immunity, 46 3, 747

Walzer,P.D.; LaBine,M.; Redington,T.J.; Cushion,M.T. 1984. Lymphocyte changes during chronic administration of and withdrawal from corticosteroids: relation to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950), 133 5, 2502

Andrews, R P; Theus, S A; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D . Comparison of the antigenic recognition of the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii isolated from different rat strains. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 72S

Arnold, J; Cushion, M T . Constructing a physical map of the Pneumocystis genome. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 8S

Calderon, Enrique J; Cushion, Melanie T; Xiao, Lihua; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Matos, Olga; Kaneshiro, Edna S; Weiss, Louis M . The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP13). The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 62 5, 701-9

Chen, F; Cushion, M T . Use of fluorescent probes to investigate the metabolic state of Pneumocystis carinii mitochondria. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 79S

Cushion, M T . Summary of the Pneumocystis research presented at the 6th International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 85S-88S

Cushion, M T . In vitro studies of Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 45-52

Cushion, M T; Arnold, J . Proposal for a Pneumocystis genome project. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 7S

Cushion, M T; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D . A method for isolation of RNA from Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 12S-14S

Cushion, M T; Linke, M J . Factors influencing Pneumocystis infection in the immunocompromised rat. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 133S-135S

Cushion, M T; Linke, M J; Collins, M; Keely, S P; Stringer, J R . The minimum number of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii organisms required to establish infections is very low. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 111S

Cushion, M T; Orr, S . Kinetics of 2 genetically distinct Pneumocystis carinii populations in rat colonies. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 46S

Cushion, M T; Orr, S; Arnold, J . Interactions between 2 Pneumocystis populations within the same host. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 9S

Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D . Closing comments: a retrospective perspective 4th International Workshop on Pneumocystis. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 60S-61S

Cushion, Melanie T . Comparative genomics of Pneumocystis carinii with other protists: implications for life style. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 51 1, 30-7

Cushion, Melanie T; Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R . Molecular and phenotypic description of Pneumocystis wakefieldiae sp. nov., a new species in rats. Mycologia, 96 3, 429-38

De Stefano, J A; Cushion, M T; Puvanesarajah, V; Walzer, P D . Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii cyst wall. II. Sugar composition. The Journal of protozoology, 37 5, 436-41

De Stefano, J A; Cushion, M T; Sleight, R G; Walzer, P D . Analysis of Pneumocystis carinii cyst wall. I. Evidence for an outer surface membrane. The Journal of protozoology, 37 5, 428-35

De Stefano, J A; Cushion, M T; Trinkle, L S; Walzer, P D . Lectins as probes to Pneumocystis carinii surface glycocomplexes. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 65S-66S

Icenhour, C R; Arnold, J; Cushion, M T . Interactions of two Pneumocystis carinii populations within rat lungs. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 107S-108S

Kaneshiro, E S; Collins, M; Cushion, M T . Effects of sterol inhibitors on the ATP content of Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 142S-143S

Kaneshiro, E S; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D; Jayasimhulu, K . Analyses of Pneumocystis fatty acids. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 69S-72S

Kaneshiro, E S; Wu, Y P; Cushion, M T . Assays for testing Pneumocystis carinii viability. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 85S-87S

Kaneshiro, Edna S; Cushion, Melanie T; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Weiss, Louis M; Xiao, Lihua . Highlights and summaries of the 11th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 58 1, 1-6

Keely, S P; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Determination of the maximum frequency of genetic rearrangements associated with Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen variation. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 46 5, 128S

Keely, S P; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Stability of four genetic loci in Pneumocystis carinii sp. f. carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 43 5, 49S

Langreth, S G; Kim, G M; Cushion, M T . Evaluation of procedures used to isolate Pneumocystis carinii from infected rat lungs. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 95S-96S

Redhead, Scott A; Cushion, Melanie T; Frenkel, Jacob K; Stringer, James R . Pneumocystis and Trypanosoma cruzi: nomenclature and typifications. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 53 1, 2-11

Ruffolo, J J; Cushion, M T; Walzer, P D . Ultrastructural observations on life cycle stages of Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 53S-54S

Settnes, O P; Nielsen, P B; Bucala, R; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T . A survey of birds in Denmark for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii. Avian diseases, 38 1, 1-10

Sloand, E; Laughon, B; Armstrong, M; Bartlett, M S; Blumenfeld, W; Cushion, M; Kalica, A; Kovacs, J A; Martin, W; Pitt, E . The challenge of Pneumocystis carinii culture. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 2, 188-95

Stringer, J R; Stringer, S L; Zhang, J; Baughman, R; Smulian, A G; Cushion, M T . Molecular genetic distinction of Pneumocystis carinii from rats and humans. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 40 6, 733-41

Stringer, J R; Wakefield, A E; Cushion, M T; Dei-Cas, E . Pneumocystis taxonomy and nomenclature: an update. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 44 6, 5S-6S

Stringer, S L; Hudson, K; Blase, M A; Walzer, P D; Cushion, M T; Stringer, J R . Sequence from ribosomal RNA of Pneumocystis carinii compared to those of four fungi suggests an ascomycetous affinity. The Journal of protozoology, 36 1, 14S-16S

Vasquez, J; Smulian, A G; Linke, M J; Cushion, M T . Antigenic differences among genetically distinct types of rat-derived Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 114S

Weinberg, G A; Dykstra, C C; Durant, P J; Cushion, M T . Chromosomal localization of 20 genes to five distinct pulsed field gel karyotypic forms of rat Pneumocystis carinii. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 117S

Weinberg, G A; O'Gara, M J; Cushion, M T . Coinfection of rats with genetically diverse forms of Pneumocystis carinii demonstrated by P. carinii inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase gene polymorphism. The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 41 5, 119S

Weiss, Louis M; Cushion, Melanie T; Didier, Elizabeth; Xiao, Lihua; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Sinai, Anthony P; Matos, Olga; Calderon, Enrique J; Kaneshiro, Edna S . The 12th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-12). The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 60 3, 298-308

Zhang, J X; Cushion, M T; Giuntoli, D; Hong, S T; Meade, J C; Smulian, A G; Stringer, S L; Stringer, J J . Analysis of the Pneumocystis carinii genome. The Journal of protozoology, 38 6, 69S